Invented by Charles Stuart Everett, Melvin Glenn Mitchell, Kenny Randolph Parker, Koushik Ghosh, Mounir Izallalen, Eastman Chemical Co

The market for composition in a zone of pre-refiner blend refers to the demand and supply dynamics of the various components that make up a pre-refiner blend. This zone plays a crucial role in the refining process as it determines the quality and characteristics of the final refined product. The composition of a pre-refiner blend typically includes a mixture of crude oil, additives, and other chemicals. These components are carefully selected and blended to achieve specific properties and meet the desired specifications for the refined product. The market for composition in this zone is driven by the need to optimize the refining process and produce high-quality end products. One of the key factors influencing the market for composition in a zone of pre-refiner blend is the quality of the crude oil used. Different types of crude oil have varying compositions, which can affect the refining process and the quality of the final product. Therefore, refiners carefully evaluate and select the appropriate blend of crude oil to achieve the desired composition and properties. Another factor that impacts the market for composition in this zone is the availability and cost of additives and chemicals. These substances are used to enhance the properties of the crude oil and improve the refining process. The demand for these additives and chemicals is influenced by factors such as environmental regulations, technological advancements, and market trends. Refiners need to ensure a steady supply of these components to maintain the desired composition in the pre-refiner blend. The market for composition in a zone of pre-refiner blend is also influenced by the requirements and preferences of end consumers. The refined products derived from the pre-refiner blend, such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, need to meet specific quality standards and performance criteria. The composition of the pre-refiner blend plays a crucial role in determining the properties and characteristics of these end products. Therefore, refiners need to closely monitor market trends and consumer preferences to adjust the composition of the pre-refiner blend accordingly. Furthermore, the market for composition in this zone is affected by technological advancements and innovations in the refining industry. New processes and technologies are constantly being developed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the refining process. These advancements can impact the composition requirements of the pre-refiner blend, as they may enable refiners to achieve desired properties with different components or ratios. Refiners need to stay updated with the latest technological developments to remain competitive in the market. In conclusion, the market for composition in a zone of pre-refiner blend is a dynamic and complex ecosystem. It is influenced by factors such as the quality of crude oil, availability and cost of additives and chemicals, consumer preferences, and technological advancements. Refiners need to carefully analyze and adapt to these factors to optimize the refining process and produce high-quality refined products.

The Eastman Chemical Co invention works as follows

The composition can include fillers, internal sizing agent, biocides or anti-foaming agents in the process, as well as colorants or optical modifiers. Additives can be added using an in-line mixer, and the composition’s consistency is reduced compared to material fed from a hydropulper.

Background for Composition in a zone of pre-refiner blend

The process of making wet laid products is to make a stock or furnish by dissolving cellulose fibres in water, then refining the mixture to produce a refined pulp stock or slurry containing fibrillated fibers. Optionally, one or more additives can be added, such as internal sizing agents or strength polymers, depending on end-use requirements. The stock is then placed onto the forming part of a machine that produces wet-laid webs, like a paper machine. A Fourdrinier wire is one example of a section that is used to deposit the stock through a slice in a headbox. This creates a continuous, wet-laid web. The wire drains the water from the stock to make the web more consistent. Water is usually removed by a combination gravity and vacuum. The web is then mechanically pressed into the nip between press rolls, reducing its water content. It then enters the drying zone to remove moisture further by thermal energy. Optionally, the dried web can be passed through a sizing machine for application of various surface sizing agents. The web, which has been rewetted by the application, then proceeds to a second zone of drying to reach the desired moisture level. Optionally, it is calendared, and the product is taken up as a finished product, or product that is optionally coated, and/or super-calendared.

Wet laid machines are capable of producing up to 800 tons of paper per day. The rate at which water is drained from the web in the forming section is one of the steps that limits the production rate of a wet-laid facility. Even small improvements in the drainage rate can have a big impact on production. As more energy is used to refine the pulp, its freeness (measured by the Canadian Standard Freeness, CSF) decreases, resulting in slower drainage of water. It would be desirable to improve the water drainage rate at a certain degree of refinement.

It would be nice to give the operator the option to increase the production of a wet-laid facility by increasing the speed of the machine, especially without adding additional dryer energy. This is particularly attractive for a mill with dryer limitations; that is, the production is limited due to the dryers operating at or close to capacity.

The use of certain synthetic fibers such as nylons and polyesters to improve the drainage of water from the product or enhance its properties can cause problems. They can be damaged, melted, or rolled up into agglomerates in the refiner. These defects can lead web breaks, or even the failure to form a web. The damaged synthetic fibers can also clog or interfere with refiner operation, resulting in manufacturing interruptions. Synthetic fibers can be introduced after cellulose fibers have been refined to avoid this problem. However, this will add a lot of complexity to the process. This operation is not possible for many wet laid producers, and they would need to invest a lot of capital to acquire the necessary equipment. The wet tensile of the web can drop so much at the forming stage that it becomes difficult to process. “It would be desirable to increase the drainage rate of the web, while minimizing the drop in its wet tensile in the forming area.

In any wet-laid process, energy inputs are varied. One of the biggest is the amount of energy needed to dry the web. It would be ideal to create a cellulose-containing composition that gives the operator the ability to increase machine speed while maintaining the same energy input for the drying sections. It is beneficial to reduce energy consumption in the dryer zone, since it can be the most expensive section of the wet-laid process. The energy input into a dryer section will only be reduced if the web reaches the desired level of dryness when it exits the zone. It would be desirable for a process to be developed and a composition to allow the operator to have the flexibility of reducing energy consumption in the drying section or increasing production by increasing machine speed, without increasing energy input to the dryers.

The most efficient way to remove water from the web is through mechanical means such as the nip on a press roller. The nip gaps get smaller as more water is forced out of the webbing. This results in a dryer web entering the drying zone and requiring less energy to heat the expensive section. There is a limit to how much pressure can be applied at the nip of the press. If the web is forced out faster than the channels and pores between the fibers will allow, it may tear or break apart or disrupt production. It would be desirable for a method to be developed that increases the amount of water removed at the press section, creating a drier web before the drying section.

The wet laid webs have many uses. Some of these applications need good air permeability. Some of these applications require good air permeability. Air and/or Water Permeability can be affected by simply reducing the base weight of the sheet/web for the desired application. However, this will affect other properties such as tensile, stiffness and tear resistance. It would be desirable for a web/sheet to have improved air permeability with an equivalent basis weight. It would be desirable for a web/sheet to have improved water permeability with equivalent basis weight.

In some cases however, air or water permeability does not need to be improved. One would prefer to reduce the cost of an article by reducing its basis weight, while maintaining one or more properties at the wet-laid product.

For some applications, the driver maintains the thickness of an article while decreasing the basis weight. It would be desirable to create a composition for the wet-laid web which provides a decrease in density, allowing the operator to reduce the basis weight without compromising the thickness.

In other applications, the goal is to increase bulk in the wet-laid article. This usually involves adding additives to the composition or increasing its basis weight. It would be ideal to create a composition which increases the bulk of a wet-laid web/sheet, without increasing its basis weight or adding additives to achieve this.

The stiffness of a sheet is an important property to consider, especially when it comes to paperboard or cardboard. It would be ideal to reduce density without losing stiffness at the same basis weight.

A reduction in basis weight can also lead to a decrease in dry tensile. It would be desirable for the tensile strength to decrease as much as possible while still achieving one or more of these improvements: decreased density, increased air and/or moisture permeability or increased bulk.

It may be necessary to maintain a certain degree of fibrillation in order to achieve the required dry tensile strengths for a specific application. Increased refining can increase fiber fibrillation, but it may also reduce the freeness of pulp and air or water permeability in the web/sheet. It would be desirable for a composition and/or a process to be developed that can increase the fibrillation of pulp fibers without reducing the drainage rate or permeability in the resulting sheet/web.

When a specialty web is made with an additive or synthetic fiber that should not be sent through the refiner, the broke system is often shut down and may require a clean out to prevent the additive or fiber from reaching the refiner when the operator transitions to a grade of product where the synthetic fiber would be considered a contaminant. The broke system may need to be shut down when a special web contains an additive or synthetic fibre that shouldn’t be sent through the refining process. This is to ensure that the fiber or additive doesn’t reach the refiner. It would be desirable for a composition or a process to allow the broke system to continue to operate during such changes.

Many of the wet-laid webs/sheets are used in food packaging and containers, as well as paperboard. While recycling has been a great success, some products do not find their way to the waste/recycle stream. Both manufacturers and consumers are becoming more aware of the impact that products have on the environment. “There is a continuing need to develop wet-laid products that are made from sustainable materials, and also exhibit environmental non-persistence. The product must satisfy or improve upon one or more of the properties required for application.

The recycle mill market is booming on an industrial scale, thanks to the success of waste/recycling. It uses many of the same processes as a wet-laid facility. Hydropulping, screening and cleaning are common elements. Depositing pulp on a moving wire is also a common element. The recycling mills also have a process step called flotation and deinking. The waste/recyclemills supply bales to wet laid facilities. The waste/recyclepulp is then added to the hydropulper, which is eventually fed into a refiner. In the process of manufacturing waste/recycle fibers from virgin cellulose, they have already been fibrillated. The freeness has already been reduced compared to virgin pulp before refinement, and after refining the pulp’s freeness will be lower than virgin pulp refined at the same energy. This results in slower water drain. It would be desirable for a composition to be developed that could increase the rate of drainage water from a stock that contains waste/recycled pulp that has been processed through a refiner.

It would be desirable, in summary, to develop a product, process, or article that exhibits any of the benefits described above. It would be desirable to create a composition or process that produces a wet-laid product or article that exhibits two or more desired benefits.

There is provided:

The process also comprises adding one or more additives in a mix in a blender tank or mixer in line, where the mixture consists of:

Composition containing cellulose fibers or synthetic cellulose fibers comprising of cellulose ester staple fibres is now available. The cellulose ester fibers must have one or more of the following characteristics: a denier per fiber (DPF) less than 3.0; a cut length less than 6 mm; a non-round form and/or crimped (referred to throughout as?Composition?). These Compositions can be found in any of the following process zones or steps. They also can be found in any vessel or pipe in a stock preparation or wet lay machine process. The Compositions may be present in feeds to, inside, or effluents of a hydropulper or any other blending vessel, refiner, a chest, a stuffbox, a hydrocyclone or a fan pump, in the pressure screen, on the wire and in the presses dryers sizing press, in the calender, sheets on rolls, in a broken vessel, in a calender or as consumer articles. The Compositions can also be found in wet-laid articles. These can also be prepared with the Compositions.

The Compositions contain cellulose fibres and cellulose est fibers, at least a portion which are cellulose staple fibers

Click here to view the patent on Google Patents.