Invented by Praveen Jayachandran, Palanivel A. Kodeswaran, Sayandeep Sen, International Business Machines Corp
The International Business Machines Corp invention works as followsA blockchain configuration can be used to store an information ledger that is accessible and secure. A method of operation can include one or more methods of logging an item in a blockchain; identifying the sub asset linked to that asset; creating a constraint on its use, logging this constraint and preventing access to it during access attempts.
Background for Enforcing multiple-use constraints on the blockchain
In a Blockchain, information is usually related to financial transactions. The popularity of blockchain is increasing, and so are the requests for additional functions. There is a limitation in the ability to track assets that are linked to blockchains via a transaction, or purchase.
One example embodiment includes a method which comprises at least one or the following: logging or storage of an asset on a blockchain; identifying a linked sub-asset; creating a use restriction for the subasset; logging or saving the use restriction associated with the related sub-asset and, during an attempt to access the subasset by the user, blocking access based upon the use limitation.
The apparatus may also include a processor that is configured to log an asset into a blockchain or identify a subasset linked to it, as well as a memory to store a use restriction for the subasset. During an attempt to access the subasset the processor can then prohibit access based on this use restriction.
Yet another example embodiment can include a nontransitory computer-readable storage medium configured with instructions that, when executed, causes a processor perform at least one out of logging an item in a blockchain; identifying a linked sub-asset; creating a use restriction for the subasset; storing the associated use restriction, and, during an attempt to access the subasset on the basis of the use constraint.
It will be clear that the components of the present invention, as shown in the figures, can be placed in many different ways. The following description of the various embodiments of at most one method, apparatus, or system as illustrated in the attached figures is not intended as limiting the scope of the claimed application. It is only representative of some embodiments.
The instant features and structures or characteristics described in this specification can be combined in any way that suits the purposes of one or more embodiments. The usage of phrases like “example embodiments”, “some embodiments”, or similar language throughout this specification indicates that an embodiment could include a specific feature, structure, or characteristic related to the embodiment. The phrases “example embodiments”, “in some embodiments?”, “in other embodiments?”, or any other similar language throughout this specification don’t necessarily refer to the same group. Furthermore, the features, structures, and characteristics described in this specification may be combined in any way that suits the needs of one or more embodiments.
In addition, the term’message’ may be used in the description of embodiments. While the term?message? may have been used to describe embodiments, the application can be applied to any type of network data such as packet, frame, or datagram. The term “message” can also be used. The term “message” can also refer to packet, frame, or datagram. While certain types of signals and messages may be shown in certain embodiments, they are not limited by a particular type of message and the application does not limit itself to that type of signaling.
Example embodiments” provide an application or software procedure that provides asset tracking and monitor. In one embodiment, asset constraints or conditions can be enforced in a blockchain. Asset data from blockchains can be used to enforce constraints associated with assets. Assets that are linked to the blockchain through a purchase or transaction can be used to update and/or identify status information about the asset.
An asset can be anything that is logged, saved or referred to in a Blockchain, like a digital copy of a physical item. A medical prescription, entertainment event tickets, etc. Logging and tracking assets is more likely to occur on assets that have a continuing interest. For example, a medical prescription with refills or a ticket for an event series which has yet to take place, or a bill which hasn’t been paid. Tracking and monitoring can be done on any asset, and it may also have sub-assets that are linked with the asset. Assets that have multiple sub-assets and receive continuous tracking can benefit from the procedures and operations described in a blockchain monitoring app.
Tracking one or more subassets may be required to enforce a constraint that has multiple uses, such as a prescription renewal. As an example, when the asset is added to a blockchain as part of a profile of the user, or a medical profile of the user, or a health care/insurance profile of the user, sub-assets are used to identify the assets and link constraints to some or all of them. A prescription, for example, may include a sub-asset relating to quantity, another relating to refill dates, yet another pertaining to the co-pay price, and a fifth relating to restrictions on prescriptions by other parties. Sub-assets can be attached to an asset in the form of links that are created whenever an asset is entered into a user’s profile on a Blockchain.
The blockchain configuration to manage assets can be configured as a ledger that includes converting physical assets in their digital representations, and registering this creation. The blockchain can be used to transfer and delete such assets, in order to monitor and mirror ownership of physical assets. A digital representation of a prescription, for example, could include, but not be limited to, the prescription identifier, doctor ID, patient identification, medicine, quantity, refill rules and multi-prescription violation. To secure asset data, a secure data hash is used, which includes encrypted data, and an encryption key. “A unique asset ID can be used to identify a prescription on the Blockchain and unique sub-assets IDs could be used to distinguish sub-assets.
In an example of operation, it is possible to create sub-assets that are derivable from a’master’ asset. Assets on a Blockchain. Sub-assets can be created based on conditions such as the expiration date or unavailability. Assuming the same prescription is for a 30-day or one-month prescription, it is renewed at the start of every month. The prescription is used to create a sub-asset, the pill count (30 pills). The sub-asset is compared to the actions identified for modifying or complementing the asset. Analyses can be run on transactions to enforce the multi-use restrictions specified in advance. The results of the decision can be saved on the blockchain to allow third-party audits. Limits can be set to restrict how often (N) and when (T) an asset A (or its sub-assets) can be used. In order to reduce prescription irregularities (for example, obtaining multiple prescriptions for a single ailment), the sub-assets can be processed in relation to an attempted modification of the asset.
In an example, double-spending crypto-currency can be a multiple-use constraint. In the real world, many business processes are based upon paper receipts. These can be forgeries and used more than once. Examples include medical prescriptions and insurance documents. Fraud can result, resulting in various losses. One of the main causes of failure is the lack of tracking ownership of assets throughout their lifecycle.
In a second example, a retailer may check that a prescription hasn’t been irregularly filled. They can then dispense the medication. Before issuing medication, the user may already have received a certain quantity from another retailer. The result of the computation or determination can be stored on the blockchain as a sub-asset for available refills. Prescription tracking data can be used for analytics in order to identify bigger concerns regarding multiple users.
In other cases, a configuration of a system may impose space-time restrictions. By computing the interval between two “sightings” (for example), you can estimate the speed of a vehicle. The application, for example, can calculate the time interval between two?sightings?
FIG. The logic diagram in FIG. 1 shows a configuration of a blockchain asset tracker according to an example embodiment. Referring to FIG. The example diagram 100 contains a blockchain network as a computing platform, or server(s), used to store transactions. Smart contract 135 can be used to store data about the user’s profile relating to assets that have been purchased, sold, or are currently active on the blockchain. Each asset 140 can have multiple subassets, such as 142,144 and146. Each of the sub-assets 142-146, and the asset, 140 may be stored in a profile that is associated with the user account which owns the 140. The user profile or the user account can be stored in the network 130, smart contract 135, asset 140, sub-assets 142-146 or another device that is communicably connected to any or all of the elements described herein. The sub-assets can be compared with the asset transaction each time to determine if a violation would occur. To identify a match or a violation, the transaction parameters can be identified and compared with sub-assets.
FIG. The system signaling diagram for a Blockchain asset tracking configuration is shown in Figure 2. Referring to FIG. The system 200 includes a Blockchain server 220 (or blockchain device) that is responsible for maintaining the ledger, and smart contracts to log assets. Assets are loaded into the blockchain 220 by an asset owner device (or asset owner). This can be done in operation when an asset is purchased, received or updated. The asset data may be stored in the blockchain and subsequent updates 216 can be received by an asset participant device 210. A sub-asset could be the quantity of pills (SA1), and constraints could be 30 pills over 30 days (C2). After the constraints have been established and logged, all attempts to modify an asset will be processed in order to determine if any violations occurred during the process. For example, an asset update that conflicts with a constraint for a sub-asset. If a violation has been identified, access to the asset 232 will be restricted. The asset profile 234 associated with it will be updated with any data related to the transaction, including the attempted violation. The asset owner 230 is also notified about the attempted violation 236, as well. “Any interested party such as an auditor may be informed to maintain diligence throughout the asset management procedures.
In general, a sub-asset constraint will be present for an asset. Every time an asset-related transaction (e.g., prescription renewal) occurs, each constraint specifies the sub-assets which need to be screened. In one embodiment, access attempts, analytics results, and decisions regarding access control would all be stored on the Blockchain. The blockchain can log any asset with constraints. For each asset type, a blockchain network can be created. All assets within that network are then tracked. A third-party can configure a filter to monitor an asset. Analytics can be performed on an asset based upon the constraint. A constraint can include an analytics code, such as a smart contract. In the prescription case, for example, the analytics code could fetch the current date by using a trusted server specified within the constraint. It could also determine if a new refilling period has begun, or if a user had already “spent” the amount. The analytics code can, for example, determine whether a new refill period has begun, or if a user has already?spent? a certain amount of refills. The results of analytics can be written on the blockchain.
FIG. 3A is a flow chart of an example of a method of operation, according to examples embodiments. Referring to FIG. The method 300 can include one or more steps of: logging an asset on a blockchain 312; identifying a linked sub-asset to the asset 314, creating a constraint of use for the subasset 318; logging the constraint of use associated with the asset 316 and, during an attempt to access the subasset, blocking access based upon the constraint of use 320. The asset can include a plurality sub-assets, each of which is linked to a respective plurality use constraints. When any of the plurality use constraints is identified during an access attempt to the sub-asset then access to that sub-asset may be restricted for a period of any time (which can be a predetermined time). The method can also include creating a sub-asset profile, including a plurality identifiers for the asset and storing it in a blockchain. Profile identifiers can include an asset name, a supplier of the asset, a recipient of the asset, a quantity of assets, re-newal date of assets, or if there are sub-assets. The method can also include creating a hash-identifier that represents the asset on the blockchain. This hash-identifier is then stored in the chain. Receiving the subasset attempt and retrieving the profile in response to the subasset attempt.
FIG. “FIG. 3B” illustrates a flow diagram for another example of a method of operation in accordance with example embodiments. Referring to FIG. The method 350 could include any or all of the following: logging the asset in the blockchain 352, identifying the token associated with it 354, receiving a request for access to the asset 356; determining if the request includes the token 358, and granting access based on that token 362. Sub-asset tracking is not necessary in this example as the token used to access an asset or sub-assets can be used to determine if the user has the privilege and rights to access that asset. During operation, attempts to modify assets/sub-assets can be blocked which limits access for third parties without the required token.
The above embodiments can be implemented in hardware, in computer programs executed by a processor or in firmware. A computer program can be embedded on a computer-readable medium such as a storage media. A computer program could, for example, reside in random access memory. ), flash memory or read-only memory (??ROM?). ), erasable, programmable read only memory (?EPROM) ), Electrically erasable, programmable read only memory (?EEPROM) Registers, registers, hard drive, a removable disc, a compact disk read only memory (?CDROM?),?EEPROM? ), or any other storage medium that is known to the art.Click here to view the patent on Google Patents.