Invented by Nick Talken, Austin Wyatt Levy, Zack Kisner, Ken Kisner, Henkel AG and Co KGaA
The Market For Fabrication Or Filming Of Solid Materials From A Polymerrizable Liquid
The market for fabrication or filming of solid materials from polymerrizable liquids is expected to experience continued expansion in the near future, driven by an increasing demand for high-quality and specialized products across various end uses.
This market is driven by the chemical composition, molecular size, branching and cross-linking of polymers in a product as well as the processing techniques employed to manufacture them. All these elements combine to determine the properties of the finished article.
Fabrication or filming of solid materials from polymerrizable liquids is an expansive market, covering a range of products. These include coatings for surface protection, films suitable for various uses, fibers used in fabrics and carpeting, as well as an expansive variety of molded shapes.
When fabricating polymers, different processing methods are used to melt them and then solidify them to form desired material. These steps have an immense effect on phase morphology, molecular conformations, and ultimately the properties of the final product. Melt processing is the most popular fabrication technique.
However, in certain instances it may be necessary to solution-process a polymer for various reasons. For instance, creating highly specialized membranes or thin films for controlled delivery of drugs and chemicals requires a process that cannot be completed through melt fabrication; solutions must be dissolved, then resolidified before coating is applied – all requiring high temperatures, time, and energy.
In some industries, precision in part fabrication requires high levels of dimensional accuracy. Injection molding is one way to achieve this high degree of accuracy; however, factors like machine operation, temperature fluctuations and variations in material flow into the mold can all affect its precision. Fortunately, new polymers now exist that meet micrometer-level precision demands.
High-performance plastics, which have low viscosity and permeability to fluid mixtures, have become a multimillion-dollar industry. These include thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers as well as low viscosity versions of high temperature materials like polyetherimides and polyaryl sulfones.
These materials are created by mixing inorganic and organic polymers, or fillers, to create composites with various performance characteristics. Often, these blends feature chemical resistance as well as toughness to increase the strength of the final product.
This field has a close relation to alloying in metallurgy. The goal is to create a material with the desired properties of each polymer involved. To develop these types of blends, an in-depth knowledge of the underlying material system and its relationships between components is necessary. This knowledge can drastically reduce development times for new blends or alloys, thus increasing industry competitiveness overall.
Fabricating or filming solid materials from polymerrizable liquids includes products such as polyester and PVC clothing, sportswear and accessories; polyester/PVC films for bottles, food packaging, barrels insulation spray foams spray foams pipes etc. Other applications may involve coatings paints adhesives lubricants.
The chemistry of the solid state allows for many properties to be controlled, including bulk characteristics like tensile strength. These qualities are essential when creating products that need to withstand elongating stress – for instance, rubber bands with higher tensile strengths will hold more weight before snapping.
Polymers often consist of molecular configurations that are fixed in place. These may be chains or amorphous structures in which molecules don’t interact at all.
These properties open the door to many potential applications, such as controlling fluid flow, creating tough and durable alloys or delivering crucial drugs. In pharmaceuticals, these properties could be utilized to produce bioplastic-enclosed nanoparticles that directly deliver insulin into the bloodstream.
Polymer chemistry in the solid state can also be employed for electrical and thermal insulation, chemical separations, paints, and adhesives. Some polymers possess exceptional tensile strength – essential when dealing with applications requiring long lasting durability or high resistance to elongating stresses.
Market segmentation is a strategy used by marketers to target groups of customers based on demographics, behaviors, lifestyles and buying patterns. It can be an effective tool for creating tailored marketing campaigns that appeal directly to consumers’ needs and desires.
Market segmentation is the most commonly employed approach, which divides a market into subgroups based on shared characteristics such as age, gender, income and geographic location. Demographic segmentation helps you identify which segments possess purchasing power so that your marketing strategies can be more effectively targeted towards these customers.
Another popular type of segmentation is behavioral, which divides the market into groups based on consumer knowledge and attitudes about a product or service. This allows you to target those already familiar with your brand and who will likely buy your items.
Fabrication or filming of solid materials from polymerrizable liquids is driven by the need to develop materials with high performance, fuel-efficiency and energy-saving characteristics. Applications include aeronautics, automobiles, aircraft, marine vessels, aerospace products, construction & other industrial materials as well as energy-related ones like wind power generation / solar energy generation / acoustic insulation.
The performance and acoustic characteristics of these materials are determined by several factors, including polymer composition, molecular design, processing techniques, and product design. Controlling the properties of a final material system is essential for creating one with suitable characteristics for specific applications.
Another critical element in product quality is the fabrication process. This affects morphology of both amorphous and crystalline regions, internal stress levels, dimensional stability and other physical, mechanical and optical characteristics of the final product. Furthermore, permeability to gases – essential for gas separation or membrane fabrication – can be altered during this step.
Polymerized systems offer the unique advantage of being able to adapt their characteristics in response to external conditions like temperature and pressure, unlike traditional materials which must remain static regardless of changes. This makes polymers an invaluable alternative over traditional ones which must always maintain their basic properties no matter what.
Synthesising polymerized systems with desired properties requires a complex combination of chemical, physical and structural reactions that must be controlled for long-term stability during storage or shipment.
Particularly in materials subject to harsh environmental conditions, such as those used in marine transportation, offshore drilling and oil-drilling platforms. Polymerized systems are highly sensitive to climate changes and require careful monitoring and planning during their manufacturing processes.
Additionally, successful business strategies require total-market forecasting. This valuable tool helps management teams make decisions that take into account industry demand rather than just their own company’s requirements. Without this data, companies may be forced to make strategic choices based on unconscious assumptions and become behind the curve when economic changes occur.
Fabricating or filming solid materials from a polymerrizable liquid offers the chance to craft many high-value functional items at competitive prices. These may include coatings for surface protection, films suitable for various uses, fibers used in fabrics and carpeting, as well as an impressive array of molded shapes.
Many processes are employed to control the molecular and phase morphology of a polymer in order to create these products. Melt processing, for instance, involves heating liquid polymers at elevated temperatures before extruding them into fibers or films or molding them into parts with complex shapes is one popular approach.
Another method is solution processing, which typically involves dissolving a polymer in solvent to remove it. This technique can be employed to create membranes with high permeability to gaseous streams and prepare prepregs for continuous-fiber-reinforced composites.
Research into new polymers with highly permeable and selective properties is an exciting field of research. Such materials offer numerous advantages, such as their high intrinsic permeability to gases; ability to selectively bind molecules and ions in order to separate them from other substances in a feed stream; or potential application as microfiltration membranes or biotechnology applications.
Some of these products are already in widespread commercial use, such as membranes for wastewater filtration and oxygen separation from carbon dioxide. These membranes can be constructed from various polymers with various chemical and physical characteristics; some being cross-linked or not cross-linked; crystalline or amorphous in structure.
Other innovations in this sector involve the formation of novel molecular structures with unique structural characteristics, such as liquid crystalline order. This type of architecture has a major influence on material performance and is being integrated into more and more applications – especially smart and intelligent materials like actuators, sensors, high-temperature organic materials, and multicomponent hybrid systems.
The Henkel AG and Co KGaA invention works as followsThe disclosure refers to a polymerizable fluid that contains a reactive oligomer as well as a reactive monomer. The polymerizable fluid is an energy-polymerizable liquid that can be hardened by one reaction mechanism to form a Photoplastic material. Further, the disclosure describes the method for producing the Photoplastic materials and the articles that can be made using the Photoplastic materials.
Background for Fabrication or filming of solid materials from a polymerrizable liquid
Single-reaction mechanism, energy polymerizable, resins are hardened with poor mechanical properties compared to traditional thermoplastics. This is the main reason why thermoplastic materials are so popular in many industries. The toughness of thermoplastic materials includes impact strength, elongation, and tensile strengths. They are often many orders of magnitude greater than the single reaction mechanism energy polymerized materials. Although free radical polymerization is the most common energy initiated reaction mechanism, it can also be cationic. Polymerization takes place under ambient conditions (25 C and 1 atm) for most applications. “There are four aspects to single-reaction mechanism polymerization known to limit mechanical properties.
Ink jet inks are used to print on a substrate film or for material jetting in additive manufacture. They require a low viscosity of typically less than 20 centipoise at jetting temperatures. Although hot melt inks can be used, liquid inks work better for high-volume industrial printing. Energy polymerizable inks, which use a single reaction mechanism, use low viscosity reactive substances to achieve the desired viscosity. After printing with radiation such as ultraviolet radiation or electron beams, the reactive materials are polymerized by reactive groups. Low viscosity reactive materials with a single reaction mechanism, energy-polymerizable inks, generally contain low viscosity monomers, and perhaps, a small percentage of low viscosity polymers. Energy polymerizable Inks can also contain a small amount of reactive and unreactive oligomers or polymers. Monofunctional monomers have a low viscosity and ink jet inks contain a lot of monofunctional monomers. These monofunctional monomers can be polymerized to produce low-performance mechanical properties.
Constructing a three-dimensional object using conventional additive or three-dimensional fabrication methods is done in a step-wise, or layer-by-layer fashion. Layer formation is primarily achieved by solidification of photopolymerrizable resin under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. There are two types of layer formation: one where new layers form at the top of the object, and the other where new layers are formed below it.
If there are new layers formed on the top of the growing object, then the object is dropped into the resin pool after each irradiation. A new layer of resin is applied to the surface, and then a new irradiation stage takes place. This ‘top down’ method has a disadvantage. These techniques have the disadvantage of requiring that the object be submerged in a pool of liquid resin. Then, the overlayer of liquid resin must be reconstituted.
If there are new layers formed at the bottom, the object under construction should be moved away from the fabrication well plate after each irradiation. These ‘bottom up’ techniques are possible, but they can be dangerous. These?bottom up? techniques can be used to remove the need for a deep well where the object is submerged. Instead, the object can be lifted from a shallow well or pool. Viscosity is a constraint in both these additive methods. Fluids with viscosities less than 2000cPs are required for uniform layers at the top and bottom interfaces. The bottom-up technique is preferred to those that use a rigid material in order to maintain consistent layer-layer placements and finish on the final part. Pot life stability is essential for all methods. Polymerization can occur without energy initiation and can result in part defects or worse, the whole vat can solidify. These reactions can occur in many of Carbon 3D’s dual reaction materials, including the CE220 and CE221, EPX 81, EPX 40, EPX 80, EPX 81, FPU50, RPU 60, RPU 661, RPU 70.
There is a need to develop new materials and methods of Inkjet Printing, or for producing three-dimensional objects using additive manufacturing, that have satisfactory mechanical characteristics, together with a single mechanism for polymerization which increases the pot-life shelf stability and reduces the toxicity of unpolymerized materials, and/or eliminates time for a thermal post cure.
A free radical polymerizable fluid for the formation of a three-dimensional object is described in several aspects. The reactive oligomer includes at least one of the following: (i), a multifunctional methacrylate polymer; (iii), a single-functional vinyl ether monomer; (vii) the monofunctional (methacrylate) monomer; (ix) the monofunctional vinyl carbonate monmer; (xi), a one-functional vinyl carbamate polymer; and (x) the monofunctional acryloyl acryloyl acryloyl acryloyl acryloyl a functional vinyl monofunctional and (x) the monofunctional acryloyl ethyl monofunctional acryloyl acryloyl acryloyl x) the monofunctional ethyl ethyl xii). The molar bond ratio between the reactive monofunctional and reactive ethylenically unaturated species’ reactive ethylenically unaturated groups is at least 10 to 1. A free radical polymerizable fluid is an energy-polymerizable liquid that can be hardened by one reaction mechanism to form a photoplastic material.
In another embodiment of the disclosure, the polymerizable fluid includes a photoinitiator ranging from 0.01 percent to approximately 15 percent by weight.
In another embodiment, the polymerized material achieves prescribed mechanical properties without the use of heat.
In another embodiment, the polymerizable fluid includes at least one non-reactive light-absorbing pigment, in amounts ranging from about 0.001 to about 10 percent weight, a filler and a polymerization inhibitor.
In another embodiment, the polymerizable fluid includes a nonreactive light-absorbing pigment in an amount of about 0.001 percent up to about 10% by weight and a filler.
In another embodiment, the monomer and oligomer react using the same polymerization mechanism but have different reaction rates.
Another embodiment of the disclosure allows for the solubility of monomer and oligomer to change during polymerization. This facilitates homopolymerization either of the monomeric or the oligomeric species.
In another embodiment, the present disclosure, polymerization creates materials with more than one temperature transition.
In another embodiment, polymerization results in a material having two different glass transition temperatures. The difference in Tg is at least 60 degrees C.
In another embodiment, the molar bonds ratio of reactive ethylenically unsaturated groups in reactive monofunctional species to reactive ethylenically saturated groups in reactive multi-functional species is at minimum 25:1.
Another embodiment of this disclosure states that the molar bond ratio between the reactive ethylenically unsaturated groups in the reactive monofunctional and reactive multi-functional species is at minimum 30:1.
In another embodiment, the polymerizable fluid forms a print onto a substrate.
In another embodiment, the polymerizable fluid is hardened to form an object or film by stereolithography, digital light projection (DLP), material Jetting or inkjet printing.Click here to view the patent on Google Patents.