Invented by James Andy Oxford, Gregory D. Folks, Christoph Wangenheim, Baker Hughes Holdings LLC

Market For Methods For Forming and Methods to Repair Earth Boring Instruments

A market is an arrangement of systems, institutions, procedures or infrastructures in which parties can come together to exchange goods and services. It may take the physical form of a retail outlet or take on virtual form through online platforms.

One such market is earth-boring instruments. Boring methods can range from manual installation to directional drills, impact moles and earth-drill boring; each has its own advantages in terms of manpower requirements and space limitations as well as budget considerations.

The market for Methods for forming

The market for Methods for Forming involves techniques used to form pipes and conduits in earth. Auger boring and slurry boring are two popular methods, though other techniques are being developed for specific situations. Some involve surveying equipment and software that helps guide a boring system through complex or adverse underground environments. Some tools also enable planning ahead of time, reducing obstacles while making the process more efficient.

One method for formation is impact moling, which involves pushing and pulling a pipe or conduit into or through ground with an impact mole. This technique works best in sandy or cohesionless soils that may be difficult to penetrate with traditional piercing tools due to its self-propelled feature that allows it to reverse direction should it deviate from its intended path.

Another method for forming is through welding, which can be employed to repair particle-matrix composite bodies. Welding can be employed to join one particle-matrix composite body to another or create a joint between it and metallic structure. Other ways of repairing a particle matrix composite body include removing damaged portions, heating it up, then building up metallic structure on top.

The market for Methods to repair

Earth boring, or drilling into the ground for a new service line, is an extensive and expensive process. The biggest risk lies in the potential failure of a bore hole which could mean losing valuable assets such as businesses or residences, plus creating public health and safety hazards. To prevent this from occurring, adequate casing must be used to prevent soil liquefaction and applying an effective mud packing process to keep entrants hydrated and moving. Common methods involve auger and slurry boring; alternative options like pipe jacking or impact moling carry less risk but require more cost-wise implementation.

The market for Tools for forming

The market for Tools for Forming and Methods to Repair Earth-boring Instruments is expected to experience substantial growth over the coming years, driven by rising demand for automated metal forming machines and rising needs for high-speed machining.

The global Metal Forming Tool market is primarily driven by the rising demand for metal products in industries such as aerospace, defense and automobiles. Furthermore, Industry 4.0 technology is expected to enhance product demand over the forecast period. Furthermore, rising interest in self-driving vehicles will further fuel product demand during this time.

Asia Pacific is projected to be the fastest-growing market in the global metal forming tool market, driven by an increase in construction activities across nations. Furthermore, developments within automotive and transportation sectors such as those found in China and India will further fuel demand for this product.

The metal forming tool market is divided by application into Automotive, General Machinery, Precision Engineering and Transport Machinery. Of these segments, the automotive sector accounts for the majority of revenue in this market and is forecast to experience the highest compound annual growth rate over the next five years.

Metal forming machine tools, such as bending machines, shearing machines and pressure machines are available on the market. However, press brake metal forming machine segment is expected to account for a substantial share in near future due to their widespread adoption across various manufacturing industries such as automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding, petroleum machinery and agriculture.

Additionally, the rise of high-speed machining and automation in metal forming processes are expected to drive the metal forming tool market. Furthermore, manufacturers’ rising trend toward improved efficiency and productivity is anticipated to further fuel its expansion.

The North America metal forming tool market is forecast to expand at a steady pace over the next five years, driven by increased production and sales of metal forming tools in the region. Furthermore, COVID-19 could serve as another driving factor for this sector.

The market for Tools to repair

The market for Tools to Repair Earth-Boring Instruments is anticipated to experience a moderate growth rate over the forecast period. This is primarily driven by an increasing need for downhole drilling and mining equipment in oil and gas wells, as well as rising construction activities across various industries.

Additionally, the rising number of oil wells and growing energy demand are projected to drive the global market for downhole tools in 2019-2027. However, volatility in crude oil prices is expected to restrain growth between 2019 and 2027 in this space.

Boring tools are typically made with a variety of materials, such as carbide, tungsten carbide, aluminum alloys and nickel-chromium. These materials offer various advantages like abrasion resistance, high strength and hardness. Furthermore, these substances exhibit resistance to corrosion and wear too – providing tools with an extended service life.

Boring tools are used for a variety of tasks, such as boring, porting and threading. Additionally, they can be employed in forming, cutting and shaping. There is an array of boring tools available – chisels, hand drills, power drills and rotary hammers being just some.

Most boring tool manufacturers strive to enhance their product portfolios and develop cutting-edge tools in response to changing user demands. This is primarily driven by the increasing demand for technologically advanced products and services within the industry, which is anticipated to drive growth in this space over the forecast period.

For instance, non-traditional machining methods such as electron beam machining (EBM) and electrical discharge machining (EDM) have become increasingly popular in the production of boring tools. This technique is especially suitable for thin and delicate components since it causes no abrasion or heat damage to the workpiece, making it a preferred choice among many manufacturers producing various boring tools.

In addition to saving time on repetitive maintenance tasks, these tools also reduce costs associated with the process. Furthermore, they offer various advantages like higher precision and minimal vibration.

The Baker Hughes Holdings LLC invention works as follows

A method for forming at most a portion an earth-boring instrument using an electronic representation at least one of the components of an earthboring tool stored within memory accessible by a processor operatively linked to a multiaxis positioning system and a direct metal-deposition apparatus. The processor generates a direct metal deposition path. It is based at minimum in part on an electronic representation of at least one component of the earthboring tool. Direct metal deposition tools are operated using the deposition path generated to deposit metal material on an component of the earth-boring device. This is done in conjunction with the multi-axis positioning systems to at least partially form at least one geometric feature. These methods also include methods for repairing earth-boring instruments.

Background for Methods for forming and methods to repair earth-boring instruments

Earth-boring tools can be used to create boreholes (e.g. wellbores) within subterranean formations. Drill bits, reamers and mills are all examples of earth-boring tools. A fixed-cutter earthboring rotary drill bits (often called a “drag”) is an example. A drill bit with a bit body that is fixed-cutter earth-boring rotary drill bit (often referred to as a?drag?) usually has a number of cutting elements. When used to cut formation material, the cutters remain in their place. A traditional fixed-cutter earth-boring, rotary drill bit has a bit body with generally radially extending and longitudinally projecting blades. The drill bit is placed at the bottom end of a well borehole, and then rotated.

Earth-boring toolbodies, such as drag bits may have complex internal or external geometry, including internal fluid passageways and blades that can be used to cut elements. Metal alloys, such as steel or stainless steel, can be used to make earth-boring toolbodies. For example, such bits can be shaped by turning, milling, or drilling a blank of metal to achieve the desired geometry. Wear-resistant materials can be used to protect a bit body made of metal alloy in harsh downhole environments. These include the blade surfaces, gage surface, junk slots, blade surfaces, and fluid courses between blades. Multi-phase materials such as hard material particles embedded in a metal alloy matrix or substantially homogenous metal alloys like cobalt-chromium are examples of wear-resistant materials. You can apply the wear-resistant materials by melting the rod made up of the material using a torch or another heat source near the area where the material is desired.

In one embodiment, a method for forming at most a portion an earth-boring instrument comprises entering an electronic representation at least one of the geometric features of at least one component of an Earth-boring device in a computer systems including memory and processor. The computer system is operatively connected with a multi-axis position system, a direct-metal deposition tool and a material removal. The processor generates the first tool path for direct metal deposition. The electronic representation of at least one component of the earthboring tool is used to generate the first tool path. To deposit metal on the component of an earth-boring device, the direct metal deposition tool uses the first tool path. It is coupled with the multi-axis positioning software to at least partially form at least one geometries feature of the earthboring tool. The processor generates a second path for the material-removal tool. This second path is based at most in part on an electronic representation of at least one of the earth’s geometric features. The second tool path is used to remove at most a portion of the deposited metallic material from at least one component of the earthboring tool.

Another embodiment of a method for forming a Rotary Drag Bit is entering an electronic representation a Rotary Drag Bit in a computer-based multi-axis Milling Machine, the computer-based system consisting of memory and a processor. Attach a metal blank to the multi-axis positioner on the multi-axis-milling machine. The processor of the multi-axis machine determines the milling path. Material is then removed from the blank using a milling device. This creates a shank for the rotary dragbit with a threaded section that can be connected to a drill string. The shank is coated with metal material by using a direct metal deposit tool. This tool follows a first deposition path that has been determined by the processor. It uses the electronic representation of rotary bit to create a geometric feature on the rotary Drag bit. The processor of multi-axis milling machines determines a path for the hardfacing of metal material. This includes at least one hardfaced section on at least one portion of rotary drag bits’ blade.

In another embodiment, a method for repairing an earthboring tool includes generating an electronic representation the shape of a worn tool. The computer system compares the electronic representation of the worn earthboring tools shape to one that is in an unworn condition based on the design specifications of the earthboring device. This allows for the identification of worn areas. A computer system generates a tool path based upon the difference in the shape of the worn earthboring tools and the unworn shape of the earthboring tools based on the specifications of the earthboring device. To build up the worn areas of the earth-boring tools to meet the design specifications, a direct metal deposition tool can be used along the tool path.

A method for altering at most one dimension of an Earth-boring instrument using an electronic representation at least one geometric feature at minimum a part of an earthboring device using a multi-axis position system, direct metal-deposition apparatus and a material-removal apparatus. The method comprises: generating with the processor, based at the least in part upon the electronic representation, an deposition path for metal material deposition by the direct-metal deposition apparatus, depositing the metal material using the direct-boring the earth-boringtool component,

The illustrations herein do not depict any specific method, apparatus or component of an earth-boring device. They are only idealized representations that are used to illustrate embodiments of the disclosure. Element that are similar between figures could also retain the same numerical number.

The disclosure is about methods for forming earth-boring instruments using direct metal deposition manufacturing processes. The disclosure may be used to apply metal material layer-by-layer on the surfaces of earth-boring tools components. Direct metal deposition may be used in some cases to create earth-boring tools components. Direct metal deposition may be used in some instances to apply material to partially formed components of earth-boring tools (e.g. blanks that include the shank of a drill bit). Direct metal deposition may be used in some cases to repair components of earth-boring tools by applying material to worn parts.

Direct metal deposition” is the term used herein. Any additive manufacturing process in which material is applied on a component involves at least partially melting a part of the component to create a melt pool. Then, adding additional material to this melt pool and melting it at least partially to form a raised feature. Direct metal deposition is the term used herein. Further, the term “direct metal deposition” can also be used to refer to any additive manufacturing process in which material is applied by heating a part of the component and then adding additional material to the heated portion. The additional material is then melted to form a raised feature on that component.

Earth-boring tool” is the term used herein. Any part or component of a tool that is designed for formation degradation. These tools can include, but are not limited to, rotary drag bits and roller cone drill bits as well as hybrid bits and reamer components like reamer blades.

FIG. “FIG. 1” illustrates a flowchart of a non-limiting example 100 of forming an earth-boring device. Act 101 consists of an electronic representation of at most one geometric feature of an earth-boring component. This is entered into a computer system that includes a memory, a processor, and is operatively connected with at least one of a multiple-axis positioning device, a direct-metal deposition tool (which can also be described as a direct-metal deposition apparatus), or a material removing tool which can also be described as a material removing apparatus. The processor generates an initial tool path for the direct metal-deposition tool in act 102. The electronic representation of at least one component of the earthboring tool is used to determine the first tool path. Act 103 describes how the direct metal deposit tool is used to deposit metal on the component of an earth-boring device coupled to the multi-axis position system. This allows the tool to form at least one geometric feature in the earth-boring instrument. Act 104 is when the processor generates another tool path that may be called a removal path for the material removal instrument. The electronic representation of the geometry feature is at least partially the basis for the second tool path. Act 105 states that the material removal tool must be operated according to the generated path to remove at most a portion the deposited metal from at least one component of the earthboring tool.

FIG. 2. This is a simplified cross sectional view of an embodiment for direct metal deposition used to form an earth-boring device. A component of an earth-boring machine 110 can be attached to a component of a machine tool that is used to position or manipulate a workpiece. As a specific, non-limiting example, the multi-axis positioner 112 may be a component of a multi-axis, computer-numeric-control (CNC) machine tool. The multi-axis positioning 112 can be connected to the multiaxis machine tool operatively (e.g. mechanically or electrically). Multi-axis machine tools may also include a CNC processor (not illustrated). This processor is programmed to read an electronically formatted file of an earth boring device and generate tool paths that are based at least partially on the three-dimensional model. To form the geometric features of an earth-boring device, both subtractive and additive manufacturing tools can be used along their respective tool paths. The tool paths can include linear movement (e.g. in direction 128) of multi-axis positioning 112, which can be controlled by CNC processors through motors (e.g. stepper motors), linear actuators or other electromechanical devices.

The earth-boring tool component 110 could be, for example, a portion or a drag bit, roller cone bit, hybrid bit, or any other earth-boring drill bits. A portion of a borehole-enlarging device (e.g. a roller cone bit, a hybrid bit, etc. ), or any other part of an earthboring tool or another downhole tool for use in a hole. An earth-boring tool component 110 could be made of a metal alloy such as steel or stainless steel, a nickel based alloy, or another metal alloy. The earth-boring component 110 could be a particle-matrix combination material. This would include particles of cemented-tungsten carbide dispersed in a metal alloy matrix (e.g. a bronze matrix).

An additive manufacturing device can be operatively connected (e.g. mechanically or electrically coupled) with the multi-axis positioning system 112. The additive manufacturing device may include or be configured to execute direct metal deposition or micro-plasma powder sintering. FIG. 2 shows the embodiment. 2 shows the additive manufacturing tool as a direct metal-deposition tool 114. Direct metal deposition tool (114) may have a heat source (116), and one or more depositionnozzles (118) may be placed adjacent to the earth-boring component 110. The heat source 116 could be a laser or an electron beam, plasma arc, or any other suitable heat sources. FIG. 2 shows the embodiment. 2 shows a CO2 laser as the heat source. Another embodiment of the heat source 116 could be distinct from the direct-metal deposition tool. It may also be independent and positionable relative to the earthboring tool 110 for the optimal selective heating of a section of the earthboring tool 110.

The one or more depositionnozzles 118 could be used to deposit material on the earth-boring component 110. One or more depositionnozzles 118 could be connected to one or several reservoirs (not illustrated) that contain powdered metallic material 120. A fluid medium can be used in some embodiments to transport the powdered material 120 from one or more reservoirs via the one or several deposition nozzles. Particles of the powdered material 120 can be trapped in a flow of inert gases (e.g., oxygen) and then delivered through one or more of the deposition nozzles. 118 Other embodiments allow metallic material to be delivered in non-powdered forms, such as a wire or rod.

The heat source (116) and one or more depositionnozzles 118 can be attached to a Gantry 122, which is located adjacent to the multi-axis positioninger 112. In some embodiments, the gantry 122 may include computer-numeric-control (CNC) capability. The gantry 122 can be configured to allow linear movement of direct metal deposit tool 114 in one, or more, directions or rotational movement of direct metal tool 114 around one or more axes. The gantry may be attached to electromechanical devices such as stepper motors, linear actuators, and so on. This allows the CNC processor to move the gantry 122 and direct metal deposition tool 112 along a tool path that is generated from the three-dimensional model.

The heat source 116 can ignite a melt pool (124) by heating a small area 126 of an earth-boring component 110 to a melting point of a material on the surface of the earthboring component 110. One or more depositionnozzles 118 could deliver powdered metal material 120 into the melt pool. The powdered metal 120 particles may melt at most partially upon contact with the melting pool 124. They may also melt when they are near the melt pool (124) or the heat source (116). The melt pool 124 is solidified after the additions of the powdered material 120. This results in the formation of the surface 126 for the earth-boring instrument component 110. The direct metal deposition process shown in FIG. Additional material 130 is deposited on the surface of component 110. It is possible to call the additional material 130 that was deposited on the surface of component 110 of the earth-boring device 110 a “layer”. Additional material. The powdered metal 120 can be completely melted and incorporated into the melt pool 124 in certain embodiments. However, the additional material 130 or the material of earth-boring instrument component 110 may remain substantially homogeneous.

The operational parameters of the direct-metal deposition tool (114), the gantry (122) and the multiaxis positioner (112) can be changed to adjust the amount of extra material 130 that is deposited in one pass. You can adjust the flow rate of powdered material 120 or the travel rate of the surface 126 in the earth-boring device component 110 relative to the direct metal tool 114. The earth-boring device component 110 may be given the desired final geometry by applying material using the direct metal deposition instrument 114. This allows for the creation of various surfaces and features. The direct metal deposition instrument 114 can be used to add one or more geometric features to the surface 126 the earth-boring device component 110. This is done by depositing additional material 130 to the earth-boring component 110. After the direct metal deposit process is completed, the one or more of the geometric features 114 formed may be dense. The one or more geometric features 131 could be substantially devoid of porosity.

The closed-loop control system may be included in the direct metal deposition instrument 114. The direct metal deposition instrument 114 could include sensors (not illustrated) to monitor operating conditions, such as the melt pool temperature and melt pool size. The data from the sensors can be sent to a direct-metal deposition control processor (e.g. the CNC processor or another processor), who may analyze the data and adjust the heat source 116’s power to alter the temperature or size of the melt pool. 124 The closed-loop control system can include proximity sensors, distance sensors, optical sensors, and other sensors to monitor the geometry and dimensions of the additional material 130 that is deposited using the direct metal deposit tool 114. The CNC processor can receive data from sensors that monitor the dimensions of the additional metal 130. Based on this data, the CNC processor may modify the tool path for the direct metal deposition machine if the dimensions or geometry of additional material 130 differ from specified design specifications (e.g. the dimensions and geometrical specification of the electronic representation).

In some embodiments, the direct-metal deposition tool (114) may include a 3D printer that has an associated material source to provide metal 120 in the form a precursor material. This will be melted to form sequentially 3D-printed layers on the surface 126 of the earth-boring device component 110. A precursor material comprising 120 could include, for instance, powder from a reservoir, delivered in a fluid medium (e.g. nitrogen, air), a powderbed having a moving delivery column of metallic powder and a distributor (e.g. a roller, pusher) to distribute quantities, a spool embedded in a solid transport medium (e.g. wax, a polymer, or a spool with metal wire or an extruded column containing the metal material. U.S. Pat. provides non-limiting examples of materials sources for precursor materials that can be used in 3D printers. No. No. 6,036,777, published Mar. 6,036,777, issued Mar. No. No. 6,596,224, published Jul. 22, 2003, to Sachs et al. ; U.S. Patent App. Pub. No. No. 2005/0225007, Oct. 13, 2005 to Lai ; U.S. Pat. No. No. 8,568,124 was issued to Brunermer on Oct. 29, 2013. The 3D printer may be configured to print the 3D-printed layers using additive manufacturing techniques. The 3D printer may use techniques such as micro-plasma powder, selective laser melting and direct metal laser intering. It can also be configured to produce 3D-printed layers using additive manufacturing techniques. Additional techniques include, without limitation, direct laser deposition and cold gas processing. Laser cladding, laser material deposition or ceramic additive manufacturing may also be used. Binder jetting and subsequentsintering may also be used to deposit metal material layer-by-layer to increase the desired material to surface component 126 of the earth-boring tool 110. These layers are mutually bonded layers at least partially melted material.

The 3D printer could include a heat source that is sufficient to melt at least some metal or metal alloys 120. A ytterbium fiber optic laser, carbon dioxide laser or electron beam emitter could be the focused heat source. The power rating of the focused heating source could be as high as 150 Watts. The power rating of the focus heat source, which is the maximum power that the heat source can consume during operation, may be about 200 Watts or higher. The power rating of the focused heating source could be as high as 300 Watts. This is a non-limiting example. U.S. Pat. reveals specific, non-limiting embodiments for focused heat sources. No. No. 8.344,283, issued January 1, 2013, to Watanabe. U.S. Pat. No. No. 7,259 353, issued August 21, 2007 to Guo; U.S. Patent Application. Pub. No. No. 2005/0056628, Mar. 17, 2005, Hu.

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