Invented by Daren Croxford, Ozgur Ozkurt, Brian Starkey, ARM Ltd

Reduced Artifacts Within Graphics Processing Systems

GPUs for Gaming

Graphics processing units (GPUs) have long been employed to accelerate real-time 3D graphics applications like games. But over the past two decades, developers have increasingly leveraged their programmability to solve more general computational issues. Now GPUs are aiding work in video editing, visual effects, high performance computing (HPC), deep learning and beyond by speeding up various computational tasks.

GPUs come in various shapes and sizes, from highly-specialized high-performance models to budget-conscious consumer grade options for desktops and laptops. They provide various features like high-bandwidth memory and various graphics capabilities for displaying information on a screen.

Gaming is a major driver for GPU technology, as it necessitates fast graphics, high resolution and frame rates, as well as intricate in-game worlds. Furthermore, it necessitates complex visual effects like ray tracing and real-time lighting to be employed.

Today’s GPUs can render graphics in both 2D and 3D, often featuring additional hardware that enhances their realism by producing more realistic rendering results. These shaders, which can be programmed by software to create advanced lighting effects, shadowing effects, and other features – are now widely used across a variety of hardware platforms.

These advances have made it simpler to craft stunning visual effects and more realistic scenes. For instance, ray tracing technology now enables accurate lighting effects and reflections on objects in the virtual world.

Ray tracer is an artificial intelligence (AI) system that utilizes algorithms to generate and analyze images. It can be employed in video production, movies or other media production as well as providing computer vision applications like face detection or recognition.

However, while these are useful tools, they can be pricey and time-consuming to use if you plan on doing more than playing a few games. That is why it is essential to understand how your GPU will be put to use before purchasing a new graphics card, as well as knowing what features it requires in order to perform optimally.

To determine what features your GPU needs for optimal performance, consult its specifications on its packaging. In addition to more obvious specs like memory and bandwidth, take into account how many physical slots it supports; this will determine how much room on your PC for the GPU to plug into its motherboard.

GPUs for Cryptocurrency Mining

Cryptocurrency mining is the practice of harnessing your computer’s processing power to mine cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which uses the Ethash algorithm designed for GPUs. As this requires a great deal of electricity and heat to complete, miners construct special mining rigs with powerful GPUs and cooling systems.

GPUs were once exclusively employed for gaming, but are now also employed to solve complex mathematical puzzles and verify cryptocurrency transactions – this process being known as cryptocurrency mining and the primary way miners make money.

Graphics cards and specialized software are often employed in this process to locate blocks of data within blockchains and verify crypto transactions. These algorithms facilitate efficient, repetitive work which increases the chance of a block being successfully mined.

Recently, GPUs have grown increasingly popular among cryptocurrency miners due to their impressive computational capacity and efficiency. GPUs can perform complex arithmetic operations much faster than traditional CPUs, making them an ideal choice for cryptocurrency mining.

However, as with any hardware purchase, it’s essential to be aware of the potential risks associated with GPU mining. These could include losses in profits, high electricity bills and the possibility that an algorithm may prove unprofitable in the future.

Before beginning to mine crypto on your own, it’s essential to consider all factors involved. The initial investment in GPUs and ongoing costs of mining can be substantial, so keeping tabs on electricity expenses and profits helps determine whether mining is worth your time.

When it comes to mining with GPUs, there are plenty of options. There are specifically designed cards for cryptocurrency mining as well as cards designed for general computing tasks like gaming and machine learning.

When selecting a graphics card, power consumption and hash rate should be taken into account. These parameters may be affected by the algorithm you choose to mine, so ensure your mining rig has all necessary hardware.

Finally, remember that GPUs deteriorate with age. Even if you do your best to maintain them, this cannot be guaranteed.

GPUs for Machine Learning

Graphics processing systems (GPUs) are sophisticated pieces of hardware that perform complex mathematical and geometric operations to produce stunning images and graphics. As a result, GPUs have become an ideal choice for machine learning and AI applications requiring massively parallel computations.

As machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) continue to advance, more engineers require powerful hardware in order to tackle the challenges presented by modern AI and machine learning. This is especially true when machine learning algorithms require hundreds of terabytes of data in order to train models and enhance model performance.

Many machine learning models utilize matrix math calculations, which can be greatly accelerated with GPUs due to their capacity for multiple, simultaneous computations. On the other hand, CPUs are also suitable for certain types of machine learning algorithms that don’t require processing large amounts of data in parallel.

A CPU is faster at performing single, more complex calculations than a GPU but can only handle one at a time. On the other hand, GPUs are capable of handling many different calculations simultaneously and scale better as their processing power increases due to their wider variety of operations.

The main advantage of GPUs for machine learning is their massively parallel compute capacity. GPUs scale more easily than CPUs, enabling them to process large datasets much more quickly.

This is especially useful when creating deep learning models with a neural network, which requires thousands of virtual neurons to execute the same operations. Since GPUs can execute these operations in parallel, they are better able to train model parameters rapidly.

Furthermore, GPUs tend to be more power-efficient than CPUs. This is particularly true for GPUs equipped with tensor cores, which can significantly shorten AI training times by supporting FP32 and FP16 mixed precision matrix multiplication.

These types of arithmetic operations are frequently encountered in neural networks and require considerable parallelization, which is often difficult to achieve with a CPU. To address this issue, GPUs have devised various solutions for data parallelization.

GPUs for Deep Learning

GPUs have become increasingly important in the training of neural networks, an essential element in artificial intelligence (AI). Neural networks draw information from large data sets and perform complex mathematical calculations; these computations take time to train due to their parallelism capabilities. GPUs offer a faster solution by handling these tasks efficiently.

GPU acceleration has enabled neural networks to be trained at higher speeds, making deep learning an invaluable resource for AI research and development. Neural networks hold the potential to revolutionize computer vision, natural language processing, and speech recognition – not to mention being integrated into digital assistants such as Siri, Cortana, and Google Now.

A GPU is a printed circuit board composed of an Intel processor for computation and a BIOS for setting storage and diagnostics. It typically has high memory bandwidth and the capacity to process multiple tasks concurrently.

Furthermore, a GPU is capable of handling complex I/O operations such as reading from and writing to disks. This makes it an ideal option for storing and transferring large amounts of data.

Programming the GPU with programming frameworks such as CUDA or OpenCL makes it simpler, but requires a great deal of expertise and can be expensive.

CPUs are best suited to general-purpose computing tasks. They have the capacity to execute single, complex calculations sequentially, but lack flexibility when it comes to creating new layers or architectures.

GPUs are the ideal solution for accelerated machine learning applications due to their optimized capability of running multiple tasks at once and being up to three times faster than CPUs. Not only that, but GPUs offer greater reliability compared to their CPU counterparts and can handle larger workloads with ease.

The ARM Ltd invention works as follows

A graphics processing system can render a frame that represents a forward view of a scene. It may also render one or more additional frames, each representing a different view of the scene and/or a different view orientation. The first frame, and/or one of the one or several further versions, may be subject to?timewarp’. and/or ?spacewarp? processing to produce an output that is?timewarped’ and/or ?spacewarped? image for display.

Background for Reduced artifacts within graphics processing systems

The technology described in this document relates to graphics processor systems and, in particular, to graphics processing system that produce images for display on virtual reality (VR), and/or augmented reality [AR] (head mounted display systems).

FIG. “FIG. An exemplary graphics processor system 10 could also include a video engine. As illustrated in FIG. 1 These units communicate with each other via an interconnect 5, and have access to offchip memory 7. This system will display frames (images) from the graphics processing unit (GPU 2), which will be rendered by the display controller 4. The frames will then be sent to a display panel 8 for display.

In order to use this system, an app such as a video game that executes on the CPU 1 will, for instance, need to display frames on the LCD 8. The application will send appropriate commands and data (for the GPU) 2 running on the CPU 1) to accomplish this. The driver will then generate the appropriate commands and data for the graphics processing unit (GPU 2) to display appropriate frames and store them in appropriate buffers. 7. These frames will be read by the display controller 4, which will then store them in a buffer.

The graphics processing system 10 (GPU 2) will be configured for rendering frames at a suitable rate such as 30 frames per minute.

An example of the use of a graphics processor system such as that shown in FIG. 1. is to provide a virtual or augmented reality (AR), head-mounted display (HMD). The display 8 in this example will be a head mounted display.

In a head-mounted display operation, the appropriate frames (images to be displayed to each eyes will be rendered by graphics processing unit (GPU 2) in response to appropriate commands or data from the application (e.g., a game). Executed on the CPU 1.

The system can also track the user’s head/gaze (so-called head orientation tracking). The head orientation (pose data) is used to determine the best way to display images to the user based upon their current head position (view orientation/pose). Images (frames are then rendered accordingly, for example by setting the viewpoint and direction (based on head orientation data), so an appropriate frame (based on the user?s current view direction) can be displayed.

It would be possible to simply determine the head position (pose), at the beginning of the graphics processor (GPU), 2 rendering a frame for display in a virtual reality or augmented reality system. Then, update the display 8 with that frame once it is rendered. However, due to latencies in rendering, it could be the case the user’s head orientation has changed between the time the frame is actually displayed (scanned to the display8). It is desirable, in fact, to be able provide frames for display in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality(AR) systems at a speed that the graphics processing unit 2 (GPU2) can render frames at.

Timewarp” is a process that allows for this. For head-mounted display systems, a process known as?timewarp? has been proposed. An “application” is created in this process. An?application? frame is created by this process. It is created using the graphics processor (GPU), 2 which uses the head orientation data (pose), sensed at the beginning. However, before the image is displayed on the display 8, additional head orientation data (pose), is sensed. The updated head orientation sensor data is used to transform the graphics unit (GPU2) 2 rendered application frame. Version of the application frame that incorporates the updated head orientation data. The so-called?timewarped? The display 8 displays the updated application frame.

The time required to render a frame” A graphics processing unit (GPU2) 2 rendered an application frame in much less time than it takes to render the frame. By performing “timewarp”, the time between head orientation (pose) data being sensed and the image displayed on display 8 being updated using the sensed head orientation (pose) data can be reduced. Processing can reduce the time it takes for head orientation data to be sensed and for the image displayed on display 8 to be updated using that data. processing. This is because?timewarp’ can be used to display the image on the display 8. The result is that the display 8’s image can be more closely aligned with the user’s current head orientation (pose). This results in a more realistic VR or AR experience.

Similarly, ?timewarp? “Similarly,?timewarp? can be used to accelerate processing, such that 90 or 120 frames per seconds, rather than what the graphics processing unit 2 (GPU 2) may be able render frames at, such 30 frames per sec. Thus, ?timewarp? processing can be used to create frames for display that were updated based upon a sensed head position (pose). This is faster than what would be possible without?timewarp. processing. This could help reduce?judder? Artefacts can be used to create a more seamless virtual reality (VR), or augmented reality experience (AR) for instance.

FIGS. “FIGS. process in more detail.

FIG. “FIG. The projection of that frame 21 is possible when the viewing angle changes due to head rotation. FIG. 2 must be used for the frame 21.

FIG. “FIG. rendering 31 of the application frames 30 to provide?timewarped? frames 32 for display. FIG. FIG. 3 shows that an application frame 30 may be subject to one (or more?)?timewarps. Process 31 is used to display the appropriate ‘timewarped? Version 32 of the application frame 30 is executed at regular intervals while waiting for a new frame to be created. The ‘timewarp’ Processing 31 can be done in parallel with (using another thread to) rendering application frames 30 (i.e. Asynchronously, also known as “asynchronous timewarp?” (ATW) processing.

FIG. “FIG. Modifications that should be made to an application frame 30 to display the frame correctly to the user based upon their head orientation (pose).

Each ?timewarped? Each?timewarped’ frame will be transformed (?timewarped?) ), e.g. As described above, it is based on more recent head position (pose), information to provide an actual output image that can be used. FIG. 4: When a change of head orientation (pose), is detected, application frame forty is transformed so that object 42 appears in the appropriate shifted position in?timewarped Frames 41B-D are different to frames 41A when no change is detected in head orientation (pose). FIG. FIG. 4 shows that object 42 shifts to the left when there is a head movement (41B) to the right. Object 42 shifts to the left when there is a greater head movement (41C) to the right. Object 42 shifts to the right when there is a head movement (41D), and object 42 shifts to the right when there is a head tilt (41D) to the left. Object 42 shifts to the right when there is no head orientation change (pose) to the 41A).

Thus in?timewarp? “Thus, in?timewarp?, an application frame first renders based on the first view orientation (pose), sensed at the start of rendering the application frames. This basically represents a static snapshot? The scene is rendered exactly as it appears to the user at the time the first view orientation (pose), was detected. ?Timewarp? The processing can then be used for updating (transforming) the static snapshot? Application frame that is based on one or several second view orientations (poses), which are sensed at one or many later points in time. After the application frame has been rendered to create a series of one- or more successive?timewarped?? Each frame represents an updated view at the relevant later point in the scene.

It has been recognized that such “timewarp” is not a good idea. While processing accounts for changes in view orientation (pose), it doesn’t account for, or so?timewarped? Frames do not display any motion changes within the scene that occurred during the same time period. The ‘timewarp’ is a term that refers to the time between frames. Processing of an application frame that represents dynamic scenes, i.e. A scene with moving objects can cause distortions to what is shown to the user.

To account object motion when performing?timewarp?” Processing, also known as’spacewarp? Processing has been proposed. This process attempts to account for any motion of objects when they are?timewarped’ Frame is to be created by?timewarping An application frame is based on the view orientation (pose), sensed at a later time. This is done by extrapolating moving items shown in an application frame to be expected, e.g. Positions at the later point in time with the ‘timewarp’ processing is then performed on the basis the extrapolated objects. The so-called?timewarped? The so-?timewarped? The display 8 displays an updated version of the application framework.

The Applicants believe there is still scope for improvement in graphics processing systems, particularly those that provide?timewarped’. and/or ?spacewarped? Images for display in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality, (AR) (head-mounted) display systems

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