Invented by II Warren Grunbok, Jeb R. Linton, International Business Machines Corp

The market for self-driving vehicle integrity management on a blockchain is rapidly gaining traction as the demand for autonomous vehicles continues to grow. With the potential to revolutionize transportation, self-driving vehicles offer numerous benefits such as increased safety, reduced traffic congestion, and improved fuel efficiency. However, ensuring the integrity and security of these vehicles is of utmost importance, which is where blockchain technology comes into play. Blockchain, the decentralized and transparent ledger technology, has already proven its worth in various industries, including finance, supply chain management, and healthcare. Its ability to securely record and verify transactions without the need for intermediaries makes it an ideal solution for managing the integrity of self-driving vehicles. One of the key challenges in the development and deployment of autonomous vehicles is the need for a reliable and tamper-proof system to track and verify their performance. Self-driving vehicles generate an enormous amount of data, including sensor readings, vehicle diagnostics, and performance metrics. This data needs to be securely stored and shared among various stakeholders, including manufacturers, regulators, and insurance companies. Blockchain technology provides a decentralized and immutable platform for storing and sharing this data. By leveraging smart contracts, self-driving vehicle manufacturers can ensure that the data is accurate, transparent, and tamper-proof. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with predefined rules and conditions, ensuring that all parties involved can trust the integrity of the data being shared. Moreover, blockchain technology enables secure and auditable access to the vehicle’s data. Each transaction recorded on the blockchain is time-stamped and cryptographically secured, making it virtually impossible to alter or manipulate the data. This level of transparency and immutability enhances trust among stakeholders and ensures the integrity of the self-driving vehicle’s performance. The market for self-driving vehicle integrity management on a blockchain is not limited to just manufacturers and regulators. Insurance companies can also benefit from this technology by leveraging the data stored on the blockchain to accurately assess risks and determine insurance premiums. With real-time access to the vehicle’s performance data, insurance companies can offer personalized policies based on the actual usage and behavior of the self-driving vehicle. Furthermore, blockchain technology can enable secure over-the-air software updates for self-driving vehicles. As autonomous vehicles rely heavily on software algorithms, ensuring the integrity and security of these updates is crucial. By using blockchain, manufacturers can securely distribute software updates and track their installation, ensuring that only authorized and verified updates are applied to the vehicles. The market for self-driving vehicle integrity management on a blockchain is still in its early stages but holds immense potential. As the adoption of autonomous vehicles increases, the need for a robust and secure system to manage their integrity becomes paramount. Blockchain technology offers a decentralized, transparent, and tamper-proof solution to address these challenges, providing stakeholders with the confidence and trust needed to embrace the future of transportation.

The International Business Machines Corp invention works as follows

The operation can include, among others, receiving a request for a vehicle from a device user, upon arrival of the requested vehicle at the location, comparing the cryptographic key information of the vehicle and that of the device user to determine a current state of the car, determining if the current state of the car passes an appraisal stored in a contract smart, and notifying the device user of approval of the appraisal when the current condition of the automobile is determined to pass the appraisal and the cryptographic key information of the device matches the

Background for Self-driving Vehicle Integrity Management on a Blockchain

A ledger is a book of entries in which transactions are recorded. Distributed ledgers are ledgers that have been replicated on multiple computers in their entirety or part. A Cryptographic Distributed Ledger can possess at least some of the following properties: irreversibility, accessibility, chronological and time stamping (all parties are aware when a particular transaction was recorded), consensus-based (a transaction can only be added if it has been approved by all parties, usually unanimously), and verifiability. A CDL is a blockchain. The description and figures are in terms of a Blockchain, but the application can be applied to any CDL.

A distributed ledger” is a list of records which are constantly growing. It uses cryptographic techniques, such as the storage of cryptographic hashes for other blocks. A distributed ledger is a common example and can be used to store information as a public ledger. A blockchain is primarily used to store financial transactions but can also be used to store information about goods and services, such as products, packages, or status. A decentralized scheme gives authority and trust to decentralized networks and allows its nodes record continuously and sequentially their transactions in a public “block”, creating a unique “chain”. This is referred to as blockchain. Hash codes are used for cryptography to authenticate a transaction and eliminate a central mediator. Blockchain is a distributed data base that keeps a list of records continuously growing in blocks. These blocks are protected from revision and tampering due to their immutable property. Each block has a timestamp as well as a link back to the previous block. Blockchain can be utilized to store, track, transmit and verify information. Blockchain is a distributed network, so all peers must reach consensus before adding a new transaction to the ledger.

Traditionally, vehicle services offered to customers, localities and other interested parties are not guaranteed. Concerns regarding vehicles for hire include insurance policies, driver integrity, security, compliance and vehicle integrity. Driverless vehicles have sparked additional concerns for those who have not yet seen a vehicle operate without a human driver, and have also yet to get into the vehicle to trust the process. For the security and integrity to be maintained, it is necessary that all regulations and local government rules are followed. Blockchain infrastructures offer reliability and immutable data necessary to confirm important records and other information to ensure safety and compliance.

The method may include one or more of: receiving a request for a vehicle from a device user, upon arrival of the candidate vehicle at the requested location; comparing the cryptographic key information of both the device and the vehicle to determine a current state of the car, determining if the current state of the car passes an appraisal stored in a Blockchain, and notifying the device user of an approval of that appraisal standard when the current condition of the automobile is determined to pass the standard.

The method may also include one or more of: receiving a request for a vehicle from a device user, upon arrival of the requested vehicle at the location, comparing the cryptographic key information of the device with that of the device user to determine a current state of the car, determining if the current state of the car passes an appraisal stored in a contract smart, and notifying the device user of an approval of appraisal standard when the current condition of the automobile is determined to pass the standard.

Another example embodiment includes a system including a user device and a vehicle. The computing node can perform any of: receive a request for a vehicle from the user, upon arrival of a vehicle at a requested location; compare vehicle cryptographic key information with user device key information in order to determine a current state of the car; determine whether this current status passes an appraisal stored in a contract and notify the user of approval.

The example embodiments may also include a nontransitory computer-readable storage medium that is configured to store instructions which, when executed, cause a processor perform one or more tasks, including receiving a request for a vehicle from a device user, comparing the cryptographic key information of the vehicle and the user’s device to determine a current state of the car, determining if the current state of the car passes an appraisal standards stored in a contract smart, and notifying the device user of an approval of appraisal standard

It will be understood that the components of the present invention, as described and illustrated herein in general, can be designed and arranged in many different ways. The following detailed description, which is represented by the figures attached, of one or more embodiments of a method and apparatus, a non-transitory computing medium, and a system is not meant to limit the scope as claimed, but is only representative of certain embodiments.

The instant features and structures or characteristics described in this specification can be combined in any way that suits the purposes of one or more embodiments. The usage of phrases like “example embodiments”, “some embodiments”, or similar language throughout this specification indicates that an embodiment could include a specific feature, structure, or characteristic related to the embodiment. The phrases “example embodiments”, “in some embodiments?”, “in other embodiments?”, or any other similar language throughout this specification don’t necessarily refer to the same group. Furthermore, the features, structures, and characteristics described in this specification may be combined in any way that suits the needs of one or more embodiments.

In addition, the term’message’ may be used in the description of embodiments. While the term?message? may have been used to describe embodiments, the application can be applied to any type of network data such as packet, frame, or datagram. The term “message” can also be used. The term “message” can also refer to packet, frame, or datagram. While certain types of signals and messages may be shown in certain embodiments, they are not limited by a particular type of message and the application does not limit itself to that type of signaling.

Example embodiments” provide methods, devices and/or networks that provide blockchain-based services for driverless and driver-based vehicles to users who request such services. When a customer requests a service from a self driving vehicle, for example when they access an online vehicle application, the customer might want assurances of safety standards as well as accurate recording of the service. Driverless vehicles can be operated using a primary code installation which provides the most recent safety standards for a specific location or by means of a national standard. To ensure that the vehicle arrives at the customer’s location with the latest software, both remotely on a server and in the vehicle itself, a record must be kept of the requirements. This should be done securely and accurately, using a medium free of corruption and illegal tampering.

A blockchain is distributed system that includes multiple nodes which communicate with one another. A blockchain operates programs called chaincode (e.g., smart contracts, etc. The blockchain holds ledger and state data and executes transactions. Some transactions are chaincode operations. Blockchain transactions must typically be “endorsed” by certain blockchain members. Only endorsed transactions can be committed to the blockchain and affect the state of the Blockchain. Other transactions that are not endorsed will be ignored. System chaincodes are a collection of special chaincodes that can be used for parameters and management functions. These chaincodes can be stored and organized in smart contracts for compliance and management during vehicle dispatch and operations.

Nodes are the communication units of the Blockchain system. A “node” is a computer. Nodes can perform a logical task in that they may run multiple nodes with different types on the same server. Nodes are organized into trust domains, and they are controlled by logical entities. Nodes may include different types, such as a client or submitting-client node which submits a transaction-invocation to an endorser (e.g., peer), and broadcasts transaction-proposals to an ordering service (e.g., ordering node). A peer node can also receive transactions from clients, commit them and maintain the state of the blockchain ledger and a copy. It is possible for peers to also play the role of endorsers, but it is not required. An ordering-service-node or orderer is a node running the communication service for all nodes, and which implements a delivery guarantee, such as a broadcast to each of the peer nodes in the system when committing transactions and modifying a world state of the blockchain, which is another name for the initial blockchain transaction which normally includes control and setup information.

A ledger is a sequenced, tamper-resistant record of all state transitions of a blockchain. State transitions may result from chaincode invocations (i.e., transactions) submitted by participating parties (e.g., client nodes, ordering nodes, endorser nodes, peer nodes, etc.). A transaction may result in a set of asset key-value pairs being committed to the ledger as one or more operands, such as creates, updates, deletes, and the like. The ledger includes a blockchain (also referred to as a chain) which is used to store an immutable, sequenced record in blocks. The ledger also includes a state database which maintains a current state of the blockchain. There is typically one ledger per channel. Each peer node maintains a copy of the ledger for each channel of which they are a member.

A chain” is a log of transactions that is organized as blocks with hash links. Each block contains N transactions, where N is greater or equal to one. The block header contains a hash for the block’s transactions as well as the header of the previous block. All transactions in the ledger can be cryptographically linked and sequenced this way. It is therefore impossible to alter the ledger without destroying the hash links. A hash of the most recent blockchain block represents all transactions on the chain before it. This allows peer nodes to be in a trusted and consistent state. The chain can be stored in a peer-node file system, such as local storage, cloud storage, or attached storage. This allows the blockchain workload to be efficiently supported by appending only.

The current state is the most recent values of all keys in the chain transaction log. The current state is often referred to by the term “world state” because it represents the most recent key values that a channel has access to. Invocations of chaincodes perform transactions on the ledger’s current state. In order to make chaincode interactions more efficient, it is possible to store the most recent values of keys in a database. State databases can be an index view of the chain’s transactions. They can be generated from the chain whenever needed. “The state database can be automatically recovered (or created if necessary) at peer node startup and before transactions are accepted.

FIG. According to an example embodiment, FIG. 1 shows a network configuration for a vehicle-management system that operates on a Blockchain network. Referring to FIG. The configuration 100 includes a client device 112. This device can be operated by the customer of the vehicle service provider. A vehicle service 114 communicates with both the device 112. and remote vehicles 116 in order to dispatch vehicles, communicate and provide vehicle services. The blockchain 120 can be a permissioned chain that stores blockchain transactions related to each customer interaction, rental vehicle, or other services. Smart contracts 118 can be created to store information about the parties involved, including the customer, vehicle provider, vehicle identification, insurance and dates. “Transaction information 122 can be stored with insurance records 126, integrity assurance information 24 and software compliance within the vehicle.

The parties to the agreement procedure may require that, once the vehicle is identified for the customer booking, they confirm via a blockchain transaction that the vehicle has been updated with the required software, especially for a self-driving vehicle, and the hash codes linked to the vehicles software build, the service provider, and the customer’s device are all matching before accepting the contract for the vehicle service. The parties may request that, once the vehicle has been identified, the software of the vehicle be updated, particularly for self-driving vehicles. They will also require that, via a blockchain transaction, that the software is compatible with the device and service provider.

In an example of operation, the client device 112 of a customer may request that a vehicle be driven, for instance, by an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle service provider will then summon a transport vehicle from the network that is associated with the provider. The vehicle can be chosen based on its location, capabilities, etc. The vehicle 116 will communicate with the device 112. This is done via the backend server of the service provider 138. For compliance purposes, this may be compared with the software builds of the vehicle service provider. This may involve exchanging and comparing cryptographic hashes for each vehicle party to compare those keys and ensure integrity. In order to appraise the software, it may be necessary to identify a build number for the current version of the operating system being used by the vehicle or the vehicle provider. Before acceptance, the firmware and software can be tested for appropriate patches and certified to be free from known security vulnerabilities.

On a successful assessment of the security posture of the software and any other information, a client device application will receive approval or disapproval. A third party such as the vehicle service provider may approve insurance requirements and other details after the security assessment of the vehicle has been approved. The blockchain can be used as a ledger to record transactions between the vehicle owner, customer, vehicle service, and other third parties. Customer may initiate the blockchain transaction, by requesting a vehicle or final approval of such a service. The transaction will only be approved after the insurance companies of both the customer and owner, as well as the transaction authorizing organization, have signed off on the accuracy of the security assessment. The smart contract can be enabled and the terms of the agreement may be satisfied if all blockchain signatories are required to be signed off by consensus peers. The customer will then see the permission to enter and use the vehicle. It is unlocked when it reaches its destination as a result.

FIG. 2A shows a configuration of blockchain architecture 200 according to an example embodiment. Referring to FIG. The blockchain architecture 200 can include certain elements of a blockchain, such as a grouping of nodes 202. The blockchain nodes may include one node 204-210. The four nodes shown are only for illustration purposes. These nodes are involved in various activities such as the blockchain transaction addition process and consensus. One or more blockchain nodes 204 – 210 can endorse transactions, and provide an order service to all blockchain nodes within the architecture 200. A blockchain node can initiate a Blockchain authentication and attempt to write into a blockchain immutable database stored in the blockchain layer 216. A copy of this ledger may be stored also on the physical infrastructure 214. The blockchain configuration can include applications 224 that are linked to APIs 222 in order to access and execute program/application code stored 220 (e.g. chaincode, smart contract, etc.). This can be customized by participants to maintain their state, control assets and receive external data. This can be installed on all nodes 204 to 210 of the blockchain via an append to the distributed ledger.

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