Invented by Charles A. Kunsch, Gil H. Choi, Steven Barash, Patrick J. Dillon, Michael R. Fannon, Craig A. Rosen, Human Genome Sciences Inc

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and in the nasal passages of healthy individuals. However, it can also cause a range of infections, from mild skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, sepsis, and endocarditis. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus has led to a growing interest in the development of alternative treatments, including vaccines and gene therapies. Polynucleotides are long chains of nucleotides that make up DNA and RNA. Sequences are specific arrangements of nucleotides that encode genetic information. In the case of S. aureus, polynucleotides and sequences can be used to develop vaccines and gene therapies that target the bacterium. The market for S. aureus polynucleotides and sequences is expected to grow in the coming years, driven by the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacterium and the need for new treatments. According to a report by Grand View Research, the global market for DNA vaccines is expected to reach $2.7 billion by 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of 40.4% from 2018 to 2025. One of the key players in the market for S. aureus polynucleotides and sequences is Moderna, a biotechnology company that is developing mRNA-based vaccines and therapies. In 2020, Moderna announced that it had received a grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to develop a vaccine against S. aureus, using its mRNA platform. The company is also developing mRNA-based therapies for other infectious diseases, including cytomegalovirus and Zika virus. Another company that is active in the market for S. aureus polynucleotides and sequences is Novartis, which is developing a vaccine called SA4Ag against S. aureus infections. The vaccine targets four different antigens on the surface of the bacterium, and has shown promising results in clinical trials. Other companies that are developing S. aureus vaccines and therapies include Pfizer, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline. In addition, academic researchers are also working on developing new treatments using S. aureus polynucleotides and sequences. Overall, the market for S. aureus polynucleotides and sequences is expected to continue to grow in the coming years, as the need for new treatments for antibiotic-resistant infections increases. While vaccines and gene therapies based on polynucleotides and sequences are still in the early stages of development, they hold promise as a new approach to treating S. aureus infections.

The Human Genome Sciences Inc invention works as follows

The present invention contains polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences from the genome of Staphylococcus Aureus, as well as vectors and hosts containing the polynucleotides. Assays and other uses of these sequences are possible.” The invention also provides information on polynucleotide sequences and polypeptide sequences stored on computer-readable media and computer-based methods that facilitate their use.

Background for Staphylococcus Aureus polynucleotides, and sequences

The genus Staphylococcus contains at least 20 distinct species. Novick, R. P.. The Staphylococcus as a Molecular Genetic System Chapter 1. pgs. 1 – 37 in MOLECULAR BIOLOGY THE STAPHYLOCOCCI by R. Novick. VCH Publishers, New York (1990). By hybridization kinetics, species can differ by as much as 80% from each other, while strains within the same species can be at least 90% alike.

The gram-positive, facultatively-aerobic, clump-forming species Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most important etiological agents for bacterial infection in humans. As we will discuss below,

Human Health and S. Aureus.

Staphylococcus Aureus is a common pathogen. (See, for instance, Mims et al., MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Mosby-Year Book Europe Limited, London, UK (1993)). It can be an etiological agent for a wide range of conditions. The severity of these conditions can vary from mild to severe. S. aureus infection can cause many conditions, including: cellulitis and eyelid infections, food poisonings, burns, cellulitis and skin infections.


Burn wounds are usually sterile at first. They can compromise the immune system and cause infection. Mixed colonization occurs at the injury site after cooling. The non-viable material on the burn’s surface (?eschar) may be the only source of infection. It can spread to the non-viable debris on the burn surface (?eschar). It can cause severe septicaemia by destroying granulation tissue.


Cellulitis is an acute skin infection that spreads from a superficial source to the lower cutaneous layer. It is most often caused by S. aureus and S. pyrogenes. Cellulitis can cause systemic infection. Cellulitis can also be a manifestation of synergistic bacteria gangrene. Cellulitis is usually caused by a combination of S. aureus with microaerophilic strainsococci. This condition causes necrosis. Treatment is limited to the removal of necrotic tissue. This condition can often lead to death.

P eyelid infections

S. aureus causes styes and sticky eye. Among other eye infections, it is common in newborns. These infections usually affect the eye’s surface, but they can sometimes penetrate the eye with more serious consequences.

Food poisoning

Some strains are capable of producing one or more of five distinct, heat- and acid-stable enterotoxins (enterotoxins B-E), that cannot be destroyed by the digestive process in the small intestine. The toxin can cause severe vomiting if taken in sufficient amounts. However, it does not cause diarrhoea. Viable bacteria is not required for the effect. While the mechanism of action of toxins is well-understood, it is still not clear how they work.

Joint infections

S. aureus” infects bone joints, causing osteomyelitis.


S. aureus” is the most frequent causative agent for haematogenous Ostelitis. It is more common in children and adolescents than in adults. Because infection is most common at the end of a long-growing bone, it can also occur in physically young people. Infection is most often found near the epiphysial growth plates at the end of long-growing bones.

Skin infections

S. aureus” is the most frequent pathogen for minor skin conditions like boils and abscesses. These infections are often treated by the normal host response mechanisms. However, they can also lead to severe internal infections. Nasal carriers of S. aureus are often plagued by recurring infections in the nasal passages.

Surgical Wound Infections

Surgical wounds can often penetrate deep into the body. This poses a serious risk to the patient’s health. S. aureus is the leading cause of infection in surgical wounds. S. aureus has a remarkable ability to infiltrate surgical wounds. Sutured wounds can become infected by far fewer S.aureus cells than are required to infect normal skin. S. aureus can infect surgical wounds, causing severe septicaemia. S. aureus may infect the bloodstream, leading to infection and seeding of internal organs. This can cause systemic diseases such as osteomyelitis and endocarditis.

Scalded Skin Syndrome.

Click here to view the patent on Google Patents.