Invented by Yongbin Wei, Durga Prasad Malladi, Tao Luo, Srinivas Yerramalli, Aleksandar Damnjanovic, Hao Xu, Peter Gaal, Wanshi Chen, Qualcomm Inc
The Market For Techniques to Configure Uplink Transmissions Using the Shared Radio Frequency Band
The market for Techniques to Configure Uplink Transmissions Utilizing the Shared Radio Frequency Band is becoming increasingly important. Unlike licensed radios, which operate on frequencies assigned by the FCC, node-based user communications devices typically utilize unlicensed frequencies in an effort to prevent interference with other licensed systems.
The most basic connection between two radios occurs when RF power passes from the transmitter to receiver along a cable or other medium. To establish an effective communications link, this power must surpass the receiver signal-level threshold.
Node-Based User Communications Devices
Networks are communication networks that link different devices or systems together through communication links. They facilitate the transmission of data as well as resources to a particular location or area.
A node is a device connected to a computer network and performing an exact function. These nodes include servers, clients and peers – which could include computers, wireless LAN access points, routers, modems or file servers.
Each node must have a MAC address, which is the address of every Network Interface Card (NIC) it uses when communicating on a network. This enables each node to keep track of which device is sending which data over the wire.
Some of these nodes are specialized, like a printer or phone; others are generic like an Ethernet cable.
The fundamental physical communications link is a wire that transmits radio frequency power between a transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx). This can be an easy direct connection, like with your personal computer, or it could involve more complex paths involving multiple relays between different components.
Another popular communication path is broadcasting, which sends messages to all nodes in the network simultaneously. This requires careful scheduling so that each node receives the message at precisely the same time and each has ample time to process it before moving onto the next node in line.
Z-Wave solves these issues through routing. This means nodes in a Z-Wave network can send and repeat messages to other nodes outside their radio range even if their direct connection is interrupted or lost.
Furthermore, nodes can actively detect errors in data they transmit and send an error frame to alert other nodes of the issue. Doing this reduces false alarms and enhances overall network performance.
Configuring uplink transmissions using the shared radio frequency band necessitates several technologies and systems that work together to provide precise location data. One common method is GPS (Global Positioning System) technology.
This method relies on both the device and receiver being equipped with multiple antennas, creating orthogonal spatial modes for uplink and downlink transmissions. Unfortunately, this approach increases channel leakage from transmit to receive antennas – especially in densely packed places such as warehouses where interference levels tend to be high.
Another popular approach is to utilize an RTLS (Real-Time Location System) solution, which utilizes Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and other wireless connectivity technologies. This enables businesses to uniformly cover an area of interest with locators which can then accurately determine the location of tracked items in real time.
Location accuracy can vary widely depending on the device used. Generally, this is determined by how precise a signal’s latitude/longitude coordinates are reported; for instance, one that reports 5 decimal degrees precision (common for iOS devices) is much more precise than one reporting 2 decimal degrees latitude/longitude coordinates.
The precision and accuracy of location signals influence how analysts interpret the data. Generally, the more precise a signal is, the higher its likelihood to be associated with activity within a specific geographic region.
For example, if a mobile device reports a location signal with a latitude/longitude coordinate of 3 decimal degrees, it’s highly likely that it was observed inside Target store. On the other hand, a latitude/longitude coordinate of 5 decimal degrees will likely indicate activity outside of this immediate vicinity of Target stores.
Combining location data with other types of information, such as user behavior and behavioral intent, requires precise location data in order to deliver relevant content and context-based app experiences that increase conversions. By adding extra precision and accuracy to location signals, brands and publishers can increase their effectiveness in these strategies resulting in greater revenue and higher ROI.
Interoperability in IT refers to the capability for multiple systems and apps to exchange information without requiring users to interact. This enables organizations to achieve higher efficiencies and a comprehensive view of their data.
Communication through this type of technology necessitates a set of standards that define how different components should work together. These standards are usually created by government and industry in partnership with their partners.
Software is another area where interoperability is important, with some programs being able to exchange data and share files. Java, for instance, is considered a highly interoperable programming language due to its capability of running code on any program that includes the Java virtual machine.
Interoperability is vital for public health agencies, enabling faster and more precise data collection. This information can be used to detect, interpret and track contagious diseases to better prepare for outbreaks, limit their spread and boost treatment efficiency.
Medical practices can benefit from the speedy exchange of patient data between different electronic health record (EHR) systems, which could potentially reduce costs. This is because it saves clinicians and nurses time by enabling them to quickly share crucial data between various systems.
Communicating the right information to the right people at the right time is paramount for improving healthcare facilities and their operations. Doing so reduces errors in diagnosis and treatment, giving doctors and nurses more time with patients as they discuss their illness or injury and create a plan for recovery.
Data sharing across the care continuum is also necessary to qualify for incentive payments under CMS Promoting Interoperability (PI), formerly known as meaningful use. Under PI, healthcare facilities must share patient data in order to receive federal funding that goes towards implementing new technology.
Therefore, healthcare businesses must ensure they have the correct interoperability solutions in place. Boston Technology Corporation has extensive expertise in this area and can assist organizations with implementing efficient, secure processes that work optimally.
Cost is an economic concept that refers to the amount of money a company invests in producing something, including labor, factory overhead and materials used. It’s often used in connection with manufacturing businesses but can also apply to businesses that don’t sell goods directly such as consulting firms.
Cost is an integral economic concept that must be taken into account when deciding if a route is worth investing in. This criteria ensures routes are utilized productively and not simply thrown away.
Cost in networked communications refers to the monetary value of resources such as bandwidth and capacity. On certain markets, these resources may be rented or purchased based on market demand.
For instance, when a carrier provides a certain frequency band, they may need to purchase or lease the spectrum in order for their investment to be profitable. In such cases, the cost of acquiring bandwidth may be much greater than its actual use;
Constructing a radio network can be costly. Therefore, it is essential that costs are kept to a minimum during construction.
Figure 12.2 illustrates several techniques available for configuring uplink transmissions using the shared radio frequency band, one being maximum-C/I scheduling which allows users to take turns using shared resources. Round-robin scheduling takes into account instantaneous channel conditions but instead assigns a fixed number of radio resources per user in turn.
Both methods can be advantageous when a network has many users and high traffic loads, as they allow all users to take advantage of its full capacity. Unfortunately, they are not equally fair in all scenarios because they do not take into account the instantaneous channel conditions experienced by all users.
To overcome the difficulties associated with configuring uplink transmissions using shared radio frequency bands, new technologies are being developed. These provide a significant performance boost and allow maximization of existing 4G site infrastructure investments. Furthermore, 5G networks can now achieve improved indoor coverage and capacity with minimal site densification.
The Qualcomm Inc invention works as followsTechniques to wirelessly communicate over a common radio frequency band may include methods for transmitting uplink data using uplink resources. An uplink channel may be allocated uplink resources. This could include a number of interlaces of resource block (RBs), which can be used by the user equipment (UE). A data stream from an incoming source may be processed, and the data may then be separated into the appropriate interlaces of RBs to the UE. This separation can be achieved by demultiplexing the data stream in order to get data for the appropriate interlaces of the RBs. The demultiplexed information may be mapped onto the associated resource elements of the allocated interlaces. There are several types of uplink channels available, including a physical control channel (PUCCH), a physical uplink shared channel(PUSCH), and/or an access channel that is physical random (PRACH), which can be assigned to interlaces of radio RBs within one or more subframes.
Background for Techniques to configure uplink transmissions using the shared radio frequency band
Wireless communication systems are used to transmit various communication types, including voice, video, packet data and messaging. These systems can be multi-access systems that allow multiple users to communicate with each other by sharing system resources (e.g. time, frequency and power). Multiple-access systems can include code-division multiple accessibility (CDMA), time-division multi access (TDMA), frequency-division multi access (FDMA), and orthogonal frequency division multiple access OFDMA systems.
A wireless multiple-access communication network may consist of a number base stations that can simultaneously support communication with multiple pieces of user equipment (UEs) by way of an example. “A base station can communicate with UEs via downlink channels (e.g. for transmissions between the base station and the UE) or uplink channels.
Some modes may allow communication with a UE using different radio frequency bands (e.g. a licensed radiofrequency spectrum band and/or unlicensed or share radio frequency band) within a cellular network. A cellular operator may be able to increase data transmission capacity by offloading at least some of the data traffic to a shared radio frequency band due to increasing data traffic in cellular network that uses a licensed radio frequency band. A transmitting device may perform an LBT procedure in order to compete for access to unlicensed radio frequency band. Clear channel assessment (CCA), which determines if a channel is available in the shared radio frequency band, may be part of an LBT procedure. If the channel is unavailable due to another wireless device using it, a clear channel assessment (CCA) may be done for the channel at a later date.
In certain cases, transmissions can be made according to techniques that increase the probability of channel access by wireless devices who seek to use a shared radio frequency band band. One example of such techniques is to allocate channel resources in a synchronized fashion for UEs. Multiple base stations and UEs might have established protocols and synchronized CCA procedures to determine when a base station, UE, or both, may execute a CCA within a coordinated CCA subframe.
The present disclosure, by way of example, deals with wireless communications over a common radio frequency band, and techniques for configuring uplink channels transmissions in a common radio frequency band. The present disclosure, for example, relates to the configuration of uplink transmissions using uplink resources. These uplink resources could include an uplink channel that includes a number allocated interlaces (RBs), for use by a user device (UE). A stream of data may be separated and processed. Each stream can then be mapped to the resource block (RBs). This may involve, for instance, demultiplexing the data stream in order to get data for the allocated resource blocs (RBs), of the interlaces. The demultiplexed data can be mapped onto the associated resources elements of the resource block (RBs), and transmitted. You may have different types of uplink channels such as a physical control channel (PUCCH), a physical uplink shared channel(PUSCH), and/or a physically random access channel (PRACH) that are allotted to interlaces in resource blocks (RBs).
Some examples describe a method of wireless communication. One example of the method is to obtain a data stream that will be transmitted over one or several uplink channels. Each of these uplink channels includes a number allocated interlaces to transmit data over an uplink transmission using a shared radiofrequency spectrum band. Demultiplexing the data stream provides one or multiple demultiplexed streams for each number of interlaces. Mapping at least one of these demultiplexed streams onto a plurality resource elements associated to the number allocated interlaces.
An apparatus for wireless communication has been described in some cases. One example of the apparatus is a means to obtain a data stream that will be transmitted over one or several uplink channels. Each of these uplink channels may contain a number allocated interlaces to transmit data over an uplink transmission using a shared radiofrequency spectrum band. There are also means to demultiplex the data stream to create one or multiple demultiplexed streams; and there are means to map at least one of those demultiplexed streams onto a plurality resource elements associated with the allocated interlaces
In some cases, another apparatus for wireless communications is described. In one example, the apparatus could include a processor and memory that are in electronic communication with each other. The processor and memory can be configured to receive a data stream that will be transmitted over one or several uplink channels. Each of these uplink channels may include a number allocated interlaces to transmit data over an uplink transmission using a shared radiofrequency spectrum band. Demultiplex the data stream to produce one or multiple demultiplexed streams for the allocated interlaces. Map at least one of those demultiplexed streams onto a plurality resource elements associated to the allocated interlaces.
In some cases, a non-transitory computer readable medium storing computer executable code for wireless communications is described. One example is that the code can be executed by a processor to obtain data streams comprising data to transmit over one or several uplink channels. Each of these uplink channels includes a number allocated interlaces for uplink transmissions over a shared radiofrequency spectrum band. The code can be demultiplexed to produce one or multiple demultiplexed streams for the allocated interlaces. It may also map at least one demultiplexed stream onto a plurality resource elements associated with the allocated interlaces.
Some examples of the non-transitory computer readable medium, apparatuses or method may include a plurality non-contiguous or contiguous resources blocks in the shared radio frequency band. One example is that each of the allocated interlaces could include a plurality resource blocks from the shared radio frequency band. A first subset (contiguous) of the plurality are contiguous, while a second subset (non-contiguous) of the plurality are non-contiguous. One or more uplink channels could include a physical-uplink shared channel (PUSCH) in some cases. One or more resource blocks for the PUSCH may include non-adjacent resources blocks. A separate demultiplexed stream can be mapped each resource block of non-adjacent resources blocks. One or more of the resource blocks for the PUSCH may include at most two adjacent resource blocs. In these cases, one or more demultiplexed streams can be mapped each resource block of the two adjacent resourceblocks. In some cases, multiple resource elements may be transmitted using single carrier frequency division multiple access (SCFDMA) techniques. The method, apparatuses or non-transitory computer readable medium may also include features, means or code to perform a discrete Fourier transformation (DFT), for each demultiplexed stream.
The plurality of resource elements can be transmitted using orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), techniques in some of the above-described method, apparatuses or non-transitory computer readable medium. The mapping of some of the above-described methods, apparatuses or non-transitory computer readable media may include mapping at most one of the demultiplexed data streams onto the plurality resource elements associated to each cluster of adjacent allocated interlaces.
In some cases of the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium described above one or more uplink channel may include a physical control channel (PUCCH). Methods, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable media may also include code, processes, features, and means for performing a DFT on at least one of the demultiplexed streams. In some cases, the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium may also include processes, features or means for determining the payload size of data to transmit on the PUCCH and for encoding data using an encoding scheme chosen based on that payload size. These examples show the code, features, and processes for encoding data. They may also include code, features, methods, or codes for choosing the appropriate encoding scheme to encode data, based at minimum in part on the payload size threshold. Some examples may also include features, code, or codes for matching encoded data, based at minimum in part on the number allocated interlaces to the PUCCH. In some cases, the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium may also include processes, features and means or code for interleaving rate-matched encoded information. Some examples may include features, code, means or processes for scrambling interleaved or rate-matched encoded information. The method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium might also include processes, features or means or code to spread each one of the demultiplexed streams of data using a spreading sequence. Some examples may also include methods, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable media that allow for multiplexing of each one or more demultiplexed streams using a reference signal.
In some cases of the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium described above one or more uplink channel may include a physical randomly access channel (PRACH). These examples show that the non-transitory computer readable medium, apparatuses and method may also include features, means or codes for selecting a subset from the allocated interlaces to a random access request. The code can be used for encoding data to be transmitted into a data stream for the subset of allocated interlaces. In some cases, the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium may also include processes, features and means or code to match the encoded data, based at most in part on the number allocated interlaces. Some examples may also include non-transitory computer readable medium, apparatuses, and processes. Some examples of the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium might also include processes, features and means or code to scramble the interleaved or rate-matched encoded information. Examples of non-transitory computer readable medium, apparatuses or methods include processes, features and means or code to spread each one or more of the demultiplexed streams of data for each number of allocated interlaces. Also, for performing DFTs for each one or more of these demultiplexed streams. Some examples of the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computers-readable medium include processes, features and means or code that multiplex each one or more of the demultiplexed streams with a reference signal.
In some cases of the method, apparatuses or non-transitory computer readable medium described above, one or more uplink channel include a PUCCH or a PUSCH and a PRACH. In some instances, each of these channels includes one or several clusters of allocated interlaces. One or more of the allocated interlaces clusters could include the number allocated interlaces for the PRACH, PUSCH or PUCCH. The PUCCH could include one or more clusters allocated interlaces within a first-uplink subframe of radio frames in some of the above-described methods, apparatuses or non-transitory computer readable media. The PRACH can include one or more clusters with allocated interlaces in the first uplink frame of a radio frame, depending on the example of the method, apparatuses or non-transitory, computer-readable medium. The PUSCH can include a subset or subsets of clusters that are allocated interlaces in a radio frame’s first uplink frame. A second subset may contain clusters that are allocated interlaces for the radio frame’s subsequent uplink frames. This second subset could have a different number than the first set of clusters. The control signaling from a base station may determine the clusters that are available for the first and second subsets of clusters of allocated interlaces in some of the above-described methods, apparatuses, and non-transitory computers-readable media.
The disclosure has provided a broad overview of the technical features and advantages of the examples. This is so that you can better understand the detailed description that follows. We will discuss additional features and benefits further below. You can use the specific examples and the concept to modify or design other structures that serve the same purpose as the present disclosure. These equivalent constructions are not outside the scope of the appended claimed. The following description will help you to understand the characteristics of the concepts described herein. This includes their organization and operation. As well as the associated benefits. Each figure is intended to be used as an illustration and description, not as a limitation of the claims.
Techniques describe how a shared radio frequency band is used to at least partially communicate over a wireless communication network. The shared radio frequency band can be used in some cases for LTE/LTE Advanced (LTE A) communications. A dedicated radio frequency band can be used with the shared radio frequency band, or independently. A dedicated radio frequency band could be one for which transmitting devices cannot compete for access as the radio frequency band is licensed to certain users (e.g., licensed radio frequency band that can be used for LTE/LTEA communications). A shared radio frequency band could be a radio spectrum band to which devices may need access. It may include a radiofrequency spectrum band that is licensed for certain users (e.g., Wi-Fi or a licensed radio frequency band that can be used for LTE/LTE-A communications) or a radiofrequency spectrum band that can be used by multiple operators in an equally divided or prioritized fashion.
When transmitting LTE/LTE A uplink transmissions in an unlicensed radiofrequency spectrum band (e.g., radio frequency band shared with other apparatuses operating under LTE/LTE A and/or other transmission protocols), it might be desirable to make LTE/LTE A uplink transmissions such that they occupy a portion (for instance, at least eighty percent, or 80%) of the unlicensed spectrum band’s available bandwidth. An LTE/LTE A uplink transmission can be made across one or more interlaces (RBs) of resource blocks to attain the desired bandwidth occupancy. An interlace of resources blocks (RBs), may contain one or more contiguous or non-contiguous blocks. One or more contiguous or non-contiguous resources blocks can be chosen so that they cover at least the desired percentage (e.g. 80%) of the radio frequency spectrum band’s available bandwidth. The terms shared radio frequency band and unlicensed band may be interchangeably used herein. They refer to radio frequencies bands that include radio frequency bands that can include unlicensed radiofrequency spectrum band(s), authorized shared access (ASA radio frequency band(s), and/or radio frequency band(s), which may use a Listen Before Talk access scheme with a channel occupancy, such as the one discussed above.
In certain cases, uplink resources could be allocated to be used in uplink transmissions by a UE. These uplink resources could include an uplink channel that has a number allocated interlaces. An incoming data stream can be processed and the data may be separated into the appropriate interlaces. For example, the UE could demultiplex the data stream in order to get data for the allocated RB interlaces. The demultiplexed data might be mapped onto the resource elements associated to the RB interlaces before being transmitted using the shared radio frequency band.
In some cases, after mapping onto the resource elements associated to the allocated interlaces RBs, additional processing such as inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT), and a half-tone shift may be performed before the signal can be transmitted. Different types of uplink channels may be assigned to interlaces of radio broadcasters (RBs) in some cases, including a physical control channel (PUCCH), a physical uplink shared channel PUSCH, and/or a physically random access channel (PRACH). Data transmitted via the PRACH may be spread over the allocated interlace(s), RBs using a spreading technique such as a Zadoff Chu spreading technique and data transmitted using resources determined using the spreading technique to reduce the chance of collisions with other transmitters.
The following description is a collection of examples and does not limit the claims’ scope, applicability or examples. You can make changes to the function or arrangement of elements without affecting the scope of disclosure. Different examples could include omitting, substituting, or adding different components or procedures. The methods may be described in a different order than the one described. Additionally, steps can be added, removed, or combined. Other examples can also use features that are described in some examples. Although many examples are described in relation to uplink transmissions, some of these techniques can be used in downlink transmissions in the same manner as those described in this article. This will be easily understood by anyone with skill in the art.
FIG. “FIG. Base stations 105 and UEs115 are part of the wireless communications system 100. A core network 130 is also included. The core network 130 can provide access authorization, tracking and user authentication. It also provides access routing and mobility functions. Through backhaul links 130 (e.g. S1, etc.), the base stations 105 can interface with core network 130. Base stations 105 may be used to perform radio configuration, scheduling and communication with the UEs 115. They may also operate under the control a base station controller (not illustrated). The base stations 105 can communicate with each other via backhaul links134 (e.g. X1, etc.) in various ways. These links can be wireless or wired.
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