Invented by Farhad Barzegar, Donald J. Barnickel, Robert Bennett, Irwin Gerszberg, Paul Shala Henry, Thomas M. Willis, III, AT&T Intellectual Property I LP

The Market For Transmission Medium and Methods of Use Therewith

The market for Transmission medium and methods of use therewith is an essential element of the electricity industry. It provides a mechanism for measuring and communicating the value of energy as well as transmission-related services.

Twisted pair cables are the most widespread and widely used transmission media today, serving as the backbone for most telephone systems and Ethernet networks, among other uses.


Cables are flexible wires or groups of insulated wires used for transmitting electrical signals. They’re an essential part of electrical equipment and systems such as power transmission, distribution, and communication.

The market for cables and their applications is expected to expand rapidly over the coming years due to rising power demands from various industries such as residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Furthermore, an increasing emphasis on green construction techniques is fueling this growth trend.

Cables are used in a range of applications, such as telecommunication, packaging, aerospace and defense, and information technology. Composed of three elements – a conductor, dielectric substance and an insulating sheath – they offer superior flexibility to many different systems.

Cables can be installed overhead or underground, depending on the application and environment. They come in various types and sizes such as low-voltage, medium-voltage, and high-voltage options.

The market for medium-voltage wires and cables is expected to expand over the coming years due to an increasing global demand for electricity. This growth is primarily driven by economic development, industrialization, and urbanization in regions such as Asia Pacific and North America.

Furthermore, the global economy is witnessing the emergence of “smart grids,” which use automation, computer systems and controls to deliver electricity more effectively and efficiently to consumers. This technology aims to increase grid resiliency by decreasing power outages and replacing service more quickly after an outage occurs.

This technology can be applied to a range of sectors, such as energy, agriculture and healthcare. It holds the potential to boost energy efficiency, cut operating costs and enhance system dependability.

Low-voltage cable (LVC) is an electrical wire used for carrying electrical signals at low voltages (up to 1,000 V). It has become an essential component in many modern communications systems and devices like smartphones, laptops, televisions, and radios.

The market for low-voltage wires and cables is expected to expand over the coming years, due to their widespread application across consumer electronics, communication, automotive, and other secondary power distribution applications. This growth is being fuelled by technological advancements which have allowed companies to offer safer and more dependable means of transmitting data and voice.


The market for Transmission medium and methods of use are expected to experience a positive growth rate over the forecast period. Rising demand for wires and cables across various end-user industries such as aerospace, civil construction, energy, telecommunications, among others will fuel market expansion.

The major factors propelling the wires and cables market include rising urbanization, the introduction of new materials for wires & cables, and an increasing penetration rate for digital avionic systems in modern aircraft. Furthermore, rapid industrialization in Asia Pacific is expected to contribute significantly towards market development over the forecast period.

Additionally, the residential sector is expected to drive demand for wires & cables during the forecast period. This segment will experience a high growth rate due to increasing electricity demands and expanding building infrastructure constructions.

Furthermore, the rising demand for data centers, cellular towers and wireless devices will necessitate high-speed insulated wires and cables in telecommunications applications. Furthermore, with more devices coming online, data storage space will need to expand significantly; hence the installation of more power and fiber-optic cables.

Another important factor driving the market for wires and cables is a growing preference for smart metering solutions. These sensors enable consumers to better monitor their power usage as well as reduce their carbon footprints. Furthermore, renewable energy sources like wind and solar power are expected to contribute towards expanding this sector over the forecast period.

The growth in the wires and cables industry will be driven by an increasing demand for electrical cable, due to increased energy transmission needs in developing economies – particularly Asia Pacific, which accounts for a substantial share of global primary energy consumption.

The wires and cables market is highly competitive, featuring a number of major players. Southwire Company, LLC; Prysmian Group; Nexans S.A; LEONI AG; Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd; LS Cable & System Limited; and Encore Wire Corporation are some of the major players operating within this space. These firms can gain an edge by increasing their presence through product launches, partnership activities, as well as investments in research & development.

Fiber optics

Fiber optics are a communications medium that sends light signals over long distances. They’re used for various applications like communication, data transfer and power transmission. Fiber optics offer higher bandwidths, greater durability and immunity from electromagnetic interference compared to traditional wires; additionally they have lower attenuation than metal wires do.

Fibers are used in a variety of industries and applications, but telecommunication is the most prevalent. They’re essential for high-speed Internet service, cellular networks, and other data-based services. Furthermore, fibers have industrial and commercial uses like data storage, security measures, and surveillance.

Fibers are also widely employed in military and aerospace applications, providing secure connections to the network for command, control, and communication. Furthermore, they have medical applications where they enable wireless connectivity to various devices and sensors.

The global fiber optics market is expected to witness an upward trajectory due to rising demand for cloud-based communication and services, as well as better bandwidth. Furthermore, the Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly taking hold, necessitating high bandwidth in order to function optimally.

Smart cities are increasingly utilizing fiber to bolster their connectivity, data collection and analytics capabilities. The growing adoption of fiber in smart cities is anticipated to fuel the growth of this market over the ensuing years.

Fiber optics is being utilized in a wide range of applications, such as medical technology and transportation. In the healthcare sector, it’s employed for X-ray imaging, surgical endoscopy and microscopy, ophthalmic lasers and light therapy.

China is the leading user of fiber optics worldwide, driving its global market. The country has implemented fiber in various telecommunication applications such as intercity, intra-city and mobile cellular systems. Furthermore, 5G technology is expected to increase fiber demand throughout Asia Pacific over the coming years.


Wireless communication is a technology that transmits voice or data without using cables or wires. Its primary advantages are mobility, flexibility and high throughput performance.

There are numerous wireless devices that can be utilized for various tasks, such as cell phones, laptops and PDAs. These gadgets enable sending and receiving of data as well as sending images or video.

Wireless systems offer the advantage of being portable and convenient, unlike wired communications that must be set up and tested beforehand. Furthermore, they are easier to use and more cost-effective to run than their wired counterparts.

The market for Transmission medium and methods of use therewith are expected to expand over the coming years as wireless networks and their services continue to develop. The growth of the Internet of Things, cloud computing capabilities, and wireless connectivity are driving this expansion.

Transmission mediums such as cellular telephones, point-to-point microwave links and satellite communications have become increasingly popular in recent years. Furthermore, wireless computer devices like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are becoming more widely used.

Wireless devices can communicate with other devices through radio waves or infrared light to transmit data. Depending on the signal type, it can be digital, asynchronous, or synchronous.

Half-duplex or full-duplex wireless transmission media allow data transmission in both directions simultaneously. The type of wireless transmission medium you select will depend on the needs and specifications of your project.

Bluetooth transmitters use radio waves to send and receive data wirelessly with a receiver that contains a Bluetooth chip. These devices can be found in homes, cars and offices alike.

For long distance communication, microwave links can be employed. Although slower and more susceptible to noise than wired connections, they offer high throughput rates.

The market for Wireless Transmission medium is expanding rapidly as companies and individuals seek ways to enhance their businesses and lives. Benefits such as faster data transfer, enhanced reliability, and lower costs have all contributed to this surge in growth.

The AT&T Intellectual Property I LP invention works as follows

Aspects may include, for instance, a transmission medium with a core. The transmission medium’s uninsulated outer surface is formed by a conductive layer. To prevent water accumulation, the conductive layer acts to block propagation of first electromagnetic waves guided through the uninsulated outer surfaces. There are other embodiments.

Background for Transmission medium and methods of use therewith

Smart phones and other mobile devices are becoming more ubiquitous and data usage is increasing, so macrocell base stations devices and the existing wireless infrastructure will need to have higher bandwidth capabilities in order to meet increased demand.” Small cell deployment is being explored to provide more mobile bandwidth. Picocells and microcells offer coverage in smaller areas than traditional macrocells.

In addition, most households and businesses have come to rely upon broadband data access for services like voice, video, and Internet browsing. Broadband access networks can be used for satellite, 4G, 5G wireless, powerline communication, fiber, cable and telephone networks.

One or more embodiments will now be described using reference to the drawings. Like reference numerals can be used throughout to refer to similar elements. The following description will provide an explanation of each embodiment. However, it is clear that many embodiments can be used without these details and without applying to any particular standard or networked environment.

In one embodiment, a guided-wave communication system is shown for sending and receiving communication signals like data or other signaling via guided magnetic waves. Guided electromagnetic waves can include surface waves and other electromagnetic waves that have been bound to or guided through a transmission medium. You will see that guided wave communications can be used with a wide range of transmission media without departing from the examples. You can choose from one or more of these transmission media, single-stranded, multi-stranded, or insulated; conductors in other shapes and configurations such as wire bundles or cables; conductors with other shapes and configurations such as wire rods or rails; non-conductors like dielectric pipes, rods or rails or other dielectric members; and combinations of conductors or dielectric materials.

The induction of guided electromagnetic waves can occur independently of any charge, current, or electrical potential that is injected into the transmission medium. If the transmission medium is a metal wire, for example, it should be understood that although a small current may form in response to the propagation and propagation electromagnetic waves along the wire’s surface, this is due to the propagation and propagation of the wave along the wire’s surface. It is not formed by an electrical potential, charge, or current that is injected in to the wire. To propagate along the wire’s surface, the electromagnetic waves travelling on the wire do not need to be part of a circuit. Therefore, the wire is a single wire transmission link that is not part a circuit. In some embodiments, a wire may not be necessary. The electromagnetic waves can propagate along one line transmission medium, which is not a cable.

More generally, ‘guided electromagnetic waves?” Or?guided electromagnetic waves? The subject disclosure describes how guided waves are affected by the presence a physical object. This could be a wire, conductor, dielectric, insulated wire, conduit, or hollow element. It can also be a wire bundle or dielectric that is covered, covered, or surrounded by an insulator, dielectric, or other wire bundle. This physical object may be used as a guide through a transmission medium (e.g. an outer, inner, or other boundary between elements) to propagate guided electromagnetic waves. These waves can then carry energy, data, and/or other signals along a transmission path from a sender device to a receiver device.

Guided electromagnetic waves are not restricted to free space propagation, such as unguided or unbounded wireless signals. Their intensity decreases in proportion to the distance traveled. However, guided electromagnetic wave propagation can occur along a transmission medium with a lower loss of magnitude per unit distance than unguided electromagnetic radiation.

Guided electromagnetic waves, unlike electrical signals, can propagate between a sending device and a receiver device without the need for an additional electrical return path. Guided electromagnetic waves can travel from a sending device through a transmission medium without conductive components, such as a dielectric strip, or via a transmission media with only one conductor (e.g. a single wire or insulated cable). Even if the transmission medium contains one or more conductors, the guided electromagnetic wave propagating along it generates currents that flow in the direction of the guided waves. These guided electromagnetic waves can travel along the transmission media from a sending device or receiving device without the need for opposing currents along an electrical return path.

Imagine electrical systems that transmit and/or receive electrical signals via conductive media between sending and receiving devices. This is a non-limiting example. These systems rely on separate electrical forward and return paths. Consider a coaxial cable with a ground shield and a center conductor. The insulator separates the two. In an electrical system, a first terminal can be connected directly to the center conductor. A second terminal can then be connected to ground shield. The sending device can inject an electrical signal into the center conductor through the first terminal. This will cause forward currents to flow along the center conductor and ground shield currents to return. For a two-terminal receiving device, the same conditions apply.

Consider, however, a guided wave communications system, such as the one described in this disclosure, that can use different types of transmission mediums (including a coaxial cable among others) to transmit and receive guided electromagnetic waves with no electrical return path. One embodiment of the subject disclosure allows for guided electromagnetic waves to propagate along the outer surface of a coaxial cables. The guided electromagnetic wave will create forward currents on a ground shield but the guided waves don’t require return currents to allow the guided waves to propagate along an outer surface of a coaxial cable. This is true for all other transmission media that are used in a guided wave communication network to transmit and receive guided electromagnetic waves. Guided electromagnetic waves can be induced by the guide wave communication system on the outer surface of bare wires, or an insulated wire. They can propagate along the wire or the wire insulated without any electrical return path.

Electrical systems that require two or more conductors to carry forward and reverse currents on separate conductors in order to propagate electrical signals injected from a sending device are different from guided wave systems that induce guided magnetic waves on the interface of a transmission media without the need for an electrical return path to allow the propagation guided electromagnetic waves along that interface.

It should be noted that guided electromagnetic wave described in the subject disclosure may have an electromagnetic field structure that is primarily or substantially outside a transmission medium to be bound or guided by it and to propagate non-trivial lengths along or along its outer surface. Other embodiments of guided electromagnetic waves may have an electromagnetic field structure that is primarily or substantially within a transmission medium in order to be bound or guided by it and to propagate nontrivial distances within that medium. Other embodiments allow guided electromagnetic waves to have an electromagnetic field structure which lies both inside and outside of a transmission medium, so that it can be bound to or guided along the transmission media. The desired electronic field structure in an embodiment may vary based upon a variety of factors, including the desired transmission distance, the characteristics of the transmission medium itself, and environmental conditions/characteristics outside of the transmission medium (e.g., presence of rain, fog, atmospheric conditions, etc.).

Various embodiments herein relate to coupling device, which can be referred as?waveguide couples?, or?waveguide coupling?. Or, more simply as ‘couplers? or?coupling device? or ?launchers? For launching and/or extracting directed electromagnetic waves to and fro a transmission medium at millimeter wave frequencies (e.g. 30 to 300 Ghz), wherein the wavelength may be smaller than one or more dimensions the coupling device or the transmission medium, such as the diameter of a wire or any other cross sectional dimension, and lower microwave frequencies like 300 MHz to 30 Ghz. A coupling device can generate transmissions that propagate as waves, such as a strip, an arc, or any other length of dielectric material, a horn or monopole or rod, or another antenna; a magnetic coupler or other resonant coupler; coil, strip line, waveguide, or any other coupling device. The coupling device receives the electromagnetic wave from either a transmitter or transmission medium. The electromagnetic field structure that makes up the electromagnetic wave can be carried within the coupling apparatus, outside it or a combination of both. The coupling device can be located in close proximity of a transmission medium so at least some portion of the electromagnetic wave is bound or couples to it and propagates as guided electromagnetic waves. A coupling device can take guided waves from a transmission medium, and then transfer them to a receiver in a reciprocal manner.

A surface wave, according to an example embodiment, is a type or guided wave that is guided through a surface of an transmission medium. This could be an exterior or outer surface of wires or any other surface that is adjacent or exposed to another medium with different properties (e.g. dielectric properties). In an example embodiment, the surface of the wire that guides surface waves can be a transitional surface between different media types. In the case of uninsulated or bare wires, the wire’s surface can be either the exterior or interior conductive surface that is exposed to air, or free space. Another example is that of an insulated wire. The surface of the wiring can be the conductive section of the wire which meets the insulation portion. Or it can be the insulator area of wire that is exposed. Depending on the relative properties of the conductor, air and insulator (e.g. dielectric properties), the material region between the insulator and conductive surfaces of wires can also be considered the surface.

According an example embodiment, the term “about?” “About” refers to a wire or transmission medium that is used with a guidedwave. It can also include fundamental guided wave propagation modes, such as a circular or substantially circular distribution of the field or a symmetrical distribution of the electromagnetic field (e.g. electric field, magnetic fields, etc.). or any other fundamental mode pattern that is at least partially around a wire, or another transmission medium. A guided wave can also propagate?about? A guided wave can propagate?about? a wire or another transmission medium if it uses a guided propagation mode. This includes the fundamental wave propagation models (e.g. zero order modes), as well as additional or alternative non-fundamental modes like higher-order guided waves modes (e.g. 1st order modes and 2nd order modes). Asymmetrical modes, and/or other guided waves (e.g. surface), that have non-circular fields around a wire. The term “guided wave mode” is used herein. Refers to the guided wave propagation mode for a transmission medium, coupling devices or other component of a guided-wave communication system.

For example, non-circular field distributions may be unilateral or multilateral and have one or more axiallobes that are characterized with relatively higher field strength and/or one/more nulls, or null regions, which are characterized as relatively low-field strength. According to one example embodiment, the field distribution may also vary depending on azimuthal orientation. This means that one or more angular areas around the wire can have an electric, magnetic, or combination thereof, that is greater than one or several other regions. As the guided waves travel along the wire, it will become apparent that the relative positions or orientations of the guidedwave higher order modes and asymmetrical modes may change.

Millimeter-wave” is used herein. Can refer to electromagnetic waves/signals falling within the?millimeter wave frequency band? between 30 GHz and 300 GHz. Microwave is a term that refers to electromagnetic waves/signals. Microwaves can be used to refer to electromagnetic signals/signals falling within a “microwave frequency band”. From 300 MHz up to 300 GHz. The term “radio frequency” is used. The term?radio frequency? oder?RF? can be used to refer to electromagnetic waves/signals that fall within the?radio frequency band. The term?RF? can be used to refer to electromagnetic signals/waves that fall within the ‘radio frequency band? between 10 kHz and 1 THz. Wireless signals, electrical signals and guided electromagnetic waves, as described in this disclosure, can operate at any frequency, including frequencies within the millimeter-wave or microwave frequency bands. Particularly, if a transmission medium or coupling device includes a conductor element, the frequency at which the guided electromagnetic waves are carried and/or propagate along that transmission medium can be lower than the mean collision frequency for the electrons within the conductor element. The frequency of guided electromagnetic waves propagated along the transmission medium and carried by the coupling devices can also be non-optical. A radio frequency that is below the range of optical frequencies which begins at 1 THz.

As used in this document, the term “antenna” means: An antenna is a device that transmits/radiates or receives wireless signals.

A transmission medium must include a core in accordance with at least one embodiment. The transmission medium’s uninsulated outer surface is formed by a conductive layer. To prevent water accumulation, the conductive layer acts to block electromagnetic waves from propagating through the uninsulated outer surface.

A core is included in a power line according to one or more embodiments. The core is surrounded by a plurality of conductors that form a conductive outer layer that allows for propagation of first guided electromagnetic wave. The plurality conductors prevent water accumulation between the conductors.

In accordance to one or more embodiments, a process includes creating a signal and propagating that signal as an electromagnetic signal bound to an outer surface a powerline having a core and a plurality conductors designed to prevent water accumulation in the cavities between the plurality conductors.

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