Apple Inc. (Cupertino, CA)
This relates generally to electronic devices with displays and, more particularly, to display driver circuitry for displays such as organic-light-emitting diode displays.
Displays are often integrated into electronic devices. For example, mobile phones and laptop computers have displays to present data to the users.
Organic light-emitting device displays employ various pixels that are based on light emitting diodes. In this type of display, each display pixel includes a light-emitting diode and thin-film transistors for controllingapplication of a signal to the light-emitting diode to produce light.
An organic light-emitting device display pixel has an drive transistor that is connected to a data line via an access transistor. An access transistor might include a gate terminal which receives scan signals via the scanner. The scan signal could be used to activate the access transistors by loading image data via the data line to the display pixels. A current source transistor is included in the display pixel that provides current to the organic light emitting diode in order to produce light.
Process Variations in temperature and voltage can affect transistors in organic light-emitting dim display pixels. Because of these changes, the transistor threshold voltages between different display pixels may fluctuate. The variations in threshold voltages of transistors could cause the display pixels to emit amounts of light that do not correspond to the desired image. It is within this context that the embodiments herein arise.
Displays can be found in electronic devices that have many pixels. Display pixels can be organic light-emitting display pixels. A light-emitting organic transistor (OLED) that emits light, may be included in each display pixel. Semiconducting transistors can be of n-type, while every other transistor in the pixel could be p-type (e.g. PMOS LTPSthin film transistors).
In normal operation, a display pixel could undergo an initialization phase in which the initialization transistor or the anode reset transistor is activated to reset the display pixels. The initialization phase may be followed by oneor more on-bias stress phases in which the transistor that loads data is activated to load a data voltage at least partially onto the drive transistor. On-bias stress can be controlled automatically by an e.g., a threshold voltage sampling and a dataloading phase. Then, there is an emission phase. The current flowing through OLEDs in the emission phase won’t be affected by the drive transistor threshold voltage due to in-pixel threshold voltage cancellation.
Performing the on-bias stress phase prior to threshold voltage sampling can help mitigate any undesired hysteresis effects and improve first-frame response. If you wish the emission time can be shortened in order to decrease the potential for mismatch between the negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) and the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) associated with the semiconducting-oxide transistor. To extend the stress the semiconducting oxide transistor can be switched on while the data loading transistor is on. External current sensing can also be enabled by the display pixel which is able to be turned off or on at will (e.g. the transistor for initialization or data loading).
The display pixel may be set up to support low-refresh rate operation (e.g., 1 Hz, 2 Hz or lower than 30 Hz, less than 60 Hz or less than 60 Hz, etc.). When operating at a low-refresh rate it is recommended that a brief refresh period is followed by a longer vertical blanking period. During the refresh period an initial on-bias stress stage can be performed immediately followed by the first threshold voltage sampling and data programming phase. A second on-bias stress stage could be performed after the first threshold sampling and data programming phase as well as a third stress phase may then be performed after the second on-bias stress stage, which is immediately followed by a second threshold voltage sampling as well as a the data programming phase. The second phase of threshold voltage sampling and the phase for data programming can be followed by an emission phase.
During the vertical blanking period, at least an additional on-bias stress phase that matches the second on-bias stress stage may be carried out to lessen flicker. The initialization voltage may be adjusted dynamically during second and fourthon-bias stress phases to reduce any conflict. Dynamically adjusting the anode reset voltage in the switch from the refresh period into the vertical blanking period could assist in improving the performance of low refresh rates.Click here to view the patent on USPTO website.
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What is a patent?
A patent is granted by the government to protect an invention, patents grant the inventor with exclusive rights to create, use the invention, market and promote the invention? Society is benefited when a brand new technology is brought to the market. Benefits can be realized in the direct sense, since it can allow people to accomplish previously unattainable things. Or indirectly by the economic benefits (business growth and employment) that the innovation offers.
Patent protection is demanded by a variety of pharmaceutical companies and university researchers for their research and development. Patents can be granted for a product, process, or method of creating new materials. In order to be granted protection under a patent the invention must be useful unique, innovative, and not readily apparent to anyone else within the same area.
Patents honor inventors who have commercially successful inventions. They act as a motivator for inventors to come up with new ideas. Small-scale businesses and inventors can be assured that they will get an income from the investment they make in technology development via patents. They can earn money from their work.
Businesses with the ability to:
Create and protect new products and services that are innovative;
Improve the visibility and the value of your product’s presence on the market
Your business and your products should be distinguished from the competition;
Access technical and business knowledge and other information;
Beware of the possibility of accidentally using proprietary third-party content, or losing your valuable information, innovative outputs, or other creative output.
Patents effectively transform the inventor’s knowledge into a commercially tradeable asset that opens up new possibilities for job creation and business growth through joint ventures or licensing.
Small businesses that have patent protection will be more attractive to investors involved in the development and commercialization of technology.
Patenting may lead to the development of new ideas and new inventions. The information you create may be eligible for patent protection.
Patents can be used to prevent untrustworthy third-party companies from earning through the work of inventions.
Commercially successful patent-protected technology revenues can be used to finance research and development (R&D), which will improve the chances of developing better technology in the coming years.
Intellectual property ownership is a way to convince lenders and investors that there are real opportunities to market your product. Sometimes, one powerful patent can open the door to numerous financing possibilities. Patents and other IP assets are able to be used as collateral or security for debt financing. Investors can also see your patent assets to increase their company valuation. Forbes and other publications have noted that each patent can increase the value of your company by as much as $500,000 to $1 Million.
Start-ups require a well-thought-out business plan that is built on the IP to demonstrate that your product or service is distinctive, superior, or innovative. Investors will be amazed if your IP rights are secure or are in the process of becoming secure, and that they support your business plan.
It is crucial to protect the secret nature of an invention prior to filing a patent application. Public divulging an invention could often damage its novelty and invalidate it. Thus, disclosures that are filed prior to filing (e.g., for test-marketing investors, investors, or for other business partners) should only be filed after signing a confidentiality agreement.
There are several types of patents. Understanding these is vital to safeguard your invention. Utility patents protect new methods and inventions made by machines. Design patents cover ornamental designs. Utility patents are the most effective and protect the owner against copies and competitors. Patents for utility are usually issued to improve or modify existing inventions. Utility patents also cover enhancements and modifications in existing inventions. For instance, a procedure patent will cover acts or methods of doing an action, while chemical compositions are a mixture of ingredients.
What is the average length of patents? Although utility patents are valid for 20 years from the date of the initial filing, they can be extended through delays in the Patent Office.
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When you are writing an application for patents, you should do a patent search, as the search can provide an insight into the other applicants’ thoughts. You’ll be able limit the nature of your invention. You can also discover the current latest developments in the field you’re inventing. This will allow you to know the extent of your invention as well as prepare you for filing the patent application.
How to Search for Patents
A patent search is the first step to getting your patent. You can do a google patent search or do a USPTO search. Once the patent application is submitted, the product that is covered by the application can be referred to as patent-pending and you will be able to locate the patent application on public pair. After the patent office has approved the application, you are able to perform a patent search to locate the issued patent, and your product will now be patented. In addition to the USPTO search engine, you can also utilize other search engines such as espacenet, as detailed below. It is possible to seek help from a patent lawyer. In the US Patents are issued by the US patent and trademark office or by the United States patent and trademark office, which also reviews trademark applications.
Are you looking for similar patents? These are the steps to follow:
1. Create a list of terms that describe your invention based on its purpose, composition, and use.
Write down a brief detailed description of your idea. Avoid using generic terms such as “device”, “process,” or “system”. Think about synonyms for the terms you initially chose. Next, note important technical terms and key words.
To help you find terms and keywords, you can use the questions below.
- What is the goal of the invention? Is it a utilitarian device or an ornamental design?
- Invention is a method to come up with something or to perform some function? Are you referring to an item?
- What is the basis of the invention? What is the physical structure of the invention?
- What is the purpose of this invention?
- What are technical terms and phrases that define the essence of an invention? A technical dictionary can assist you to locate the right terms.
2. These terms will enable you to look up relevant Cooperative Patent Classifications at Classification Search Tool. To determine the most suitable classification for your invention, go through the classification’s class Schemes (class schedules). If you don’t see any results from the Classification Text Search, you might consider substituting your words for describing your invention with synonyms.
3. Review the CPC Classification Definition for the CPC Classification Definition to confirm the accuracy of the CPC classification you’ve located. The link to the CPC classification definition will be provided in the event that the title of the classification contains a blue box with “D” on its left. CPC classification definitions can help determine the relevant classification’s scope and therefore you’re sure to select the one you consider to be the most pertinent. These definitions may also include search tips or other suggestions that could be helpful for further investigation.
4. The Patents Full-Text Database and the Image Database allow you to find patent documents that are accompanied by the CPC classification. By focusing on the abstracts and representative drawings it is possible to narrow your search for the most relevant patent publications.
5. This list of patent publication is the best to look at for any connections with your invention. Be sure to read the claims and specifications. You may find additional patents by consulting the patent examiner and applicant.
6. You can retrieve published patent applications that match the CPC classification you selected in Step 3. You can apply the same search strategy as in Step 4. You can narrow your search results to the relevant patent application by looking at the abstract as well as the illustrations on every page. Next, carefully examine the patent applications published and pay particular attention to the claims as well as additional drawings.
7. You can look up other US patent publications using keywords in the AppFT and PatFT databases, and also the classification search of patents that are not from the United States per below. Additionally, you can make use of search engines on the internet to find non-patent documents that describe inventions in the literature. Examples:
- Add keywords to your search. Keyword searches may turn up documents that are not well-categorized or have missed classifications during Step 2. For example, US patent examiners often supplement their classification searches with keyword searches. Think about the use of technical engineering terminology rather than everyday words.
- Search for foreign patents using the CPC classification. Then, re-run the search using international patent office search engines such as Espacenet, the European Patent Office’s worldwide patent publication database of over 130 million patent publications. Other national databases include:
- European Patent Office (EPO) provides esp@cenet to access a network of Europe’s patent databases with access to machine translation of European patents.
- Japan Patent Office (JPO) – with access to machine translations of Japanese patents.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers PATENTSCOPE with a full-text search of published international patent applications and machine translations for some documents, as well as a list of international patent databases.
- Korean Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS)
- State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) with machine translation of Chinese patents.
- Other International Intellectual Property Offices with online patent databases include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
- Search non-patent literature. Inventions can be made public in many non-patent publications. It is recommended that you search journals, books, websites, technical catalogs, conference proceedings, and other print and electronic publications.
To review your search, you can hire a registered patent attorney to assist. A preliminary search will help one better prepare to talk about their invention and other related inventions with a professional patent attorney. In addition, the attorney will not spend too much time or money on patenting basics.